Allgemein · Büchertipps · Gastbeiträge

Büchertipp: Israel und der Clash der Kulturen

‘Nuclear weapons programs are about regime survival’, Znet, 10
June 2007.
‘Sharon on the warpath: Is Israel planning to attack Iran?’,
International Herald Tribune, 21 August 2004.
Mendel, ‘Diary’, London Review of Books.
Quoted in Shahak, Open Secrets, pp. 54–5.
Quoted in ibid., p. 82.
Quoted in ibid., pp. 90–1.
Quoted in ibid., p. 83.
Quoted in ibid., p. 36.
The nuclear arming of any Arab state had been a red line in Israeli
military thinking for some time. Israel Shahak quotes comments by
General Amnon Shahak-Lipkin, then Deputy Chief of Staff, made
in an interview in April 1992: ‘I believe that the State of Israel
should from now on use all its power and direct all its efforts to
preventing nuclear developments in any Arab state whatsoever’
(Open Secrets, p. 34).
‘Israel worried Iran could benefi t from Iraq war’, Ha’aretz, 18
February 2003.
160 NOTES TO CHAPTER 2, pp. 36–78
Cook 02 chap03 160 21/11/07 06:25:15
‘Sharon says U.S. should also disarm Iran, Libya and Syria’,
Ha’aretz, 18 February 2003.
‘Sharon promises to help Bush if he attacks Saddam’, Daily
Telegraph, 8 February 2002.
‘Attack Iran the day Iraq war ends, demands Israel’, The Times,
5 November 2002.
‘Sharon says U.S. should also disarm Iran, Libya and Syria’,
Ha’aretz.
‘Israel thrusts Iran in line of US fire’, Guardian, 2 February
2002.
‘Who would give the go-ahead?’, Ha’aretz, 22 March 2003.
‘Israel to US: now deal with Syria and Iran’, Ha’aretz, 13 April
2003.
‘Israel thrusts Iran in line of US fi re’, Guardian.
Israel’s obsession with remaining undisputed military top dog in
the region included lobbying against US weapons sales even to
weak Arab nations. An arms deal with the Persian Gulf states, for
example, was threatened in April 2007 after Israel objected that
it would damage Israel’s military deterrent in the Middle East.
According to a report in Ha’aretz: ‘The United States has made
few, if any, sales of satellite-guided ordnance to gulf countries,
several offi cials said. Israel has been supplied with such weapons
since the 1990s and used them extensively against Hezbollah in
the Second Lebanon War’ (‘Report: Israeli objections delaying U.S.
arms sale to Arab countries’, 5 April 2007).
‘A Conversation with Zbigniew Brzezinski’, The American
Prospect, 20 May 2007.
‘UN: Iran has only 100s of centrifuges’, Jerusalem Post, 13 April
2007.
‘Sanctions are not working’, Guardian, 11 April 2007.
‘Pentagon analyst gets 12 years for disclosing data’, New York
Times, 20 January 2006.
‘Trial of ex-AIPAC staffers postponed’, The Jewish Week, 28 April
2006.
‘New front sets sights on toppling Iran regime’, 16 May 2003.
Jim Lobe, ‘Shadowy neo-con adviser moves on Iran’, Inter-Press
News Agency, 24 June 2003.
See, for example, ‘The jihad on Iraq’, National Review, 26 January
2004.
‘The riddle of Iran’, Economist, 19 July 2007.
‘Israel targets Iran nuclear plant’, Sunday Times, 18 July 2004.
NOTES TO CHAPTER 2, pp. 36–78 161
Cook 02 chap03 161 21/11/07 06:25:15
‘Cheney says Israel might “act fi rst” on Iran’, New York Times,
21 January 2005.
See, for example, ‘Dagan: one nuke not enough for Iran’, Jerusalem
Post, 27 December 2005; ‘Military Intelligence: Iran will cross
nuclear threshold by 2009’, Ha’aretz, 11 July 2007.
‘Iran is judged 10 years from nuclear bomb’, Washington Post, 2
August 2005.
Available at: http://www.acronym.org.uk/docs/0509/doc14.htm
‘The US and the Iranian nuclear impasse’, Middle East Report,
No. 241, Winter 2006.
Available at: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/sc8792.doc.
htm
Available at: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/sc8928.doc.
htm
Democracy Now, 21 October 2005. A transcript is available at:
http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=05/10/21/144258
‘The coming wars’, New Yorker, 24 January 2005.
‘The Iran plans’, New Yorker, 17 April 2006.
‘The redirection’, New Yorker, 5 March 2007.
For details of the incentive scheme, see the translation of a Ma’ariv
article from 8 July 2007, ‘Israel to Iranian Jews: immigration at any
price’, available at: http://www.cjp.org/page.html?ArticleID=148952
In consequence, Israel had a very real interest in fi nding other
ways to encourage these Jews to leave Iran. Certainly there is
evidence of previous Israeli intrigues to force Jews to leave other
Middle East states and come to Israel. Israel may have hoped
that, in addition to the obvious benefi ts of the spying operations,
such espionage would create a climate in which Iranians started
to distrust their Jewish neighbours and that it might lead to a
popular backlash against them. That would ‘prove’ Israel’s claims
of rampant anti-Semitism in the Middle East and, in line with
Israeli goals, force Iran’s Jews to fl ee to Israel.
Hersh, ‘Last stand’, New Yorker, 10 July 2006. See also: ‘Plan
B’, New Yorker, 28 June 2004; and ‘The next act’, New Yorker,
27 November 2006.
Available at: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Speeches+by+Is
raeli+leaders/2006/Address+by+PM+Olmert+to+a+joint+meetin
g+of+US+Congress+24-May-2006.htm
For example, in his speech to the Herzliya conference, former
Democratic Senator John Edwards observed: ‘The war in Lebanon
had Iranian fi ngerprints all over it. I was in Israel in June, and I
took a helicopter trip over the Lebanese border. I saw the Hezbollah
rockets, and the havoc wreaked by the extremism on Israel’s border.
162 NOTES TO CHAPTER 2, pp. 36–78
Cook 02 chap03 162 21/11/07 06:25:15
Hezbollah is an instrument of the Iranian government, and Iranian
rockets allowed Hezbollah to attack and wage war against Israel.’
Available at: http://www.rawstory.com/news/2007/Edwards_Iran_must_
know_world_wont_0123.html.
Edwards, like most observers, ignored the fact that Hizbullah,
though clearly supported fi nancially and militarily by Iran, had
its own local agenda (particularly in relation to the Shebaa Farms
and a prisoner swap) and its own domestic concerns, not least the
need, as a political party as well as a militia, not to lose the support
of Lebanese Shia voters and political allies such as Michel Aoun’s
Christian faction, the Free Patriotic Movement. It is also worth
noting that the Shia of Hizbullah identify as Arabs whereas the
Shia of Iran identify as Persians.
Hersh, ‘Watching Lebanon’, New Yorker, 21 August 2006.
‘IDF retrieves bodies of four tank soldiers killed in south Lebanon’,
Ha’aretz, 14 July 2006.
‘Islamic Jihad leader killed in Lebanon’, Washington Post, 26 May
2006; ‘Lebanese man confesses to killings on behalf of Israel’,
Ha’aretz, 13 June 2006.
UNIFIL’s reports are available online at: http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/
missions/unifi l/unifi lDrp.htm
The UN quietly changed its view in summer 2007 and agreed that
the territory was in fact Lebanese after all (‘UN tells Israel: Place
Shaba Farms in hands of UNIFIL’, Ha’aretz, 11 July 2007).
In October 2005, Nasrallah had observed: ‘We do not need a
regional war to regain occupied land; we just need to liberate
Lebanese occupied land [the Shebaa Farms] and free our remaining
prisoners of war … If this could be accomplished by recourse
to the international community and international relations, then
we would welcome that’ (quoted in ‘Hizballah after the Syrian
withdrawal’, Middle East Report, No. 237, Winter 2005).
For more on Facility 1391, see ‘Inside Israel’s secret prison’,
Ha’aretz, 10 July 2003, and my article ‘Facility 1391: Israel’s
Guantanamo’, Le Monde diplomatique, November 2003.
‘Nasrallah: “mistake” led to deaths of 3 IDF soldiers’, Ha’aretz,
25 June 2004.
‘Middle East foes swap prisoners’, BBC Online, 29 January
2004.
‘Kidnap of soldiers in July was Hezbollah’s fi fth attempt’, Ha’aretz,
19 September 2006.
‘“No” to Lebanon War II’, Ha’aretz, 13 July 2006.
‘Hezbollah warns Israel over raids’, BBC Online, 12 July 2006.
NOTES TO CHAPTER 2, pp. 36–78 163
Cook 02 chap03 163 21/11/07 06:25:15
Perhaps disingenuously, Nasrallah later observed: ‘We did not
think that the capture [of the two Israeli soldiers] would lead to a
war at this time and of this magnitude. You ask me if I had known
on July 11 … that the operation would lead to such a war, would
I do it? I say no, absolutely not’ (‘Nasrallah: We wouldn’t have
snatched soldiers if we thought it would spark war’, Ha’aretz, 28
August 2006).
‘Top IDF offi cer: we knew war would not get abducted soldiers
back’, Ha’aretz, 25 April 2007. According to Major General Gadi
Eisenkott, the war was supposed to ‘launch a massive strike on
Hezbollah targets, and return the territory in which the group was
operating to Lebanese sovereignty’.
‘Capture of soldiers was “act of war” says Israel’, Guardian, 13
July 2007.
‘Deadly Hezbollah attack on Haifa’, BBC Online, 16 July 2006.
‘IDF commander: we fi red more than a million cluster bombs in
Lebanon’, Ha’aretz, 12 September 2006.
Human Rights Watch, First Look at Israel’s Use of Cluster
Munitions in Lebanon in July–August 2006, 30 August 2006.
‘Israel attacks Beirut airport and sets up naval blockade’, New
York Times, 13 July 2006.
‘Iran and Syria helping Hizballah rearm’, Time, 24 November
2006.
‘Israel strikes back after Haifa attacked’, CNN Online, 17 July
2006.
‘IAF foils rocket transports from Syria’, Ynet, 17 July 2006.
Binyamin Netanyahu, ‘No cease-fi re’, Wall Street Journal, 23
July 2006. The same line was widely promoted by pro-Israel
organisations. See, for example, ‘Proportionality in the war in
Lebanon’ by the head of the Anti-Defamation League, Abraham
Foxman, published in Ha’aretz on 23 July 2006.
The media emphasised Nasrallah’s warmongering rather than his
calls for an end to the fi ghting (‘Pushing for a ceasefi re from behind
a barrage of Katyushas’, Guardian, 28 July 2006).
‘Israel carries out airstrikes in Lebanon despite 48-hour halt’, USA
Today, 31 July 2006.
This apparently did not go entirely unnoticed by some Washington
offi cials. ‘The most important story in the Middle East is the growth
of Nasrallah from a street guy to a leader – from a terrorist to
a statesman,’ said Robert Baer, a former CIA agent in Lebanon
and long-time critic of Nasrallah, following the month-long war.
Richard Armitage, the former Deputy Secretary of State, called
164 NOTES TO CHAPTER 2, pp. 36–78
Cook 02 chap03 164 21/11/07 06:25:16
Nasrallah ‘the smartest man in the Middle East’ (quoted in ‘The
Redirection’, The New Yorker, 5 March 2007).
For example, Israeli spokesman Mark Regev declared: ‘Our
operation in Lebanon is designed to neutralize one of the long
arms of Iran – Hezbollah. Hezbollah is their proxy, being used as
an instrument of Teheran to advance their extremist agenda and
the blow to Hezbollah is a blow to Iranian interests and a blow to
all extremist jihadist forces in the region’ (‘Ahmadinejad: destroy
Israel, end crisis’, Washington Post, 3 August 2006).
Again a double standard was applied to Hizbullah during the
fi ghting. Israeli offi cials, backed by the international community,
claimed that the Shia militia had been putting Lebanese civilians
in harm’s way by hiding their fighters and arms inside local
communities. Jan Egeland, the UN’s head of humanitarian affairs,
called this ‘cowardly blending’. In fact, there was little evidence
for this claim, as was pointed out by a Human Rights Watch
investigation at the time (Fatal Strikes, August 2006). A year
later a report by UNIFIL noted that Hizbullah was moving its
rockets from their original rural fi ring sites, in what were called
‘nature reserves’, into Shia villages in order to hide them from
UN inspectors. The only reasonable conclusion to draw was that
they had been kept well away from the villages during the war
a year earlier (‘Hezbollah hides rockets from UN in S. Lebanon
villages’, Ha’aretz, 22 July 2007). In contrast to Hizbullah, Israel
had committed the offence of ‘cowardly blending’ during the war
in at least two respects: fi rst, Israeli soldiers had been found, as they
usually are, in public places, queuing alongside Israeli civilians at
bus stops and in bank lines, and sitting in cafes and restaurants;
and second, Israel had chosen to build many of its military sites,
including army bases and weapons factories, inside or next to
civilian communities. Apart from in my own reports, these aspects
of the war went entirely unremarked. See, for example, my articles
‘The human shields of Nazareth’, Anti-war.com, 19 July 2006;
‘Israel, not Hizbullah, is putting civilians in danger’, Counterpunch,
3 August 2006; and ‘Hypocrisy and the clamor against Hizbullah’,
Counterpunch, 9 August 2006.
This error was made, for example, by the BBC’s reporter Matthew
Price, who appeared to be repeating Israeli government misinformation. See my ‘The human shields of Nazareth’, Anti-war.com,
19 July 2006.
‘Firefi ghters battle blaze at munitions warehouse in Nazareth’,
Ha’aretz, 18 May 2007.
NOTES TO CHAPTER 2, pp. 36–78 165
Cook 02 chap03 165 21/11/07 06:25:16
I was given access to the HRA’s fi eld research before publication.
The fi nal report was due in autumn 2007, if the military censor
passed it.
‘Katyusha rocket hit Haifa oil refi neries complex during Second
Lebanon War’, Ha’aretz, 22 March 2007.
‘Report: Iran admits to supplying Hezbollah with drones’, Ha’aretz,
10 November 2004; ‘Hizbullah fl ies drone over Israel’, Ynet, 11
April 2005. In the latter report, a Hizbullah spokesman said the
drone would be used ‘each time enemy [Israeli] aircrafts violate
Lebanese sovereignty’.
‘Hizbollah’s response reveals months of planning’, Independent,
16 July, 2006. Schiff admitted that Hizbullah knew of the Miron
base and had the ability to hit it in ‘There should have been a
preventive strike’, Ha’aretz, 13 April 2007.
‘Siniora admits weakness of state’s authority’, Daily Star (Beirut),
28 August 2006.
Seymour Hersh, ‘Watching Lebanon’, New Yorker, 21 August
2006.
Ibid.
Democracy Now, 14 August 2006. A transcript is available at:
http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=06/08/14/1358255
Hersh, ‘Watching Lebanon’.
Democracy Now, 14 August 2006.
‘The Gray Zone’, New Yorker, 6 August 2006.
‘Israel set war plan more than a year ago’, San Francisco Chronicle,
21 July 2006.
‘PM: war in Lebanon was planned months in advance’, Ha’aretz,
9 March 2007.
‘Senior IDF offi cer to Haaretz: PM did not order us to prepare for
war’, Ha’aretz, 12 March 2007.
‘Reservists called up for Lebanon strike’, 12 July 2006.
‘Wagged by the military tail’, Ha’aretz, 29 March 2007.
‘“Army misled Olmert,” Ben-Eliezer tells Winograd panel’, Israel
News, 18 June 2007.
‘In the shadow of the army’, Ha’aretz, 11 May 2007.
‘A very, very painful response’, Ha’aretz, 4 May 2007.
Ibid.
‘Senior IDF offi cer to Haaretz: PM did not order us to prepare for
war’, Ha’aretz.
In hindsight, it is possible to interpret UN Resolution 1559, passed
in September 2005 after it was pushed heavily by the US, as seeking
to establish the optimum conditions for an attack on Hizbullah.
The resolution was designed to make Hizbullah more vulnerable
166 NOTES TO CHAPTER 2, pp. 36–78
Cook 02 chap03 166 21/11/07 06:25:16
to Israel, fi rst by ousting its local patron, Syria, from Lebanon
and then by demanding the Shia militia disarm. It succeeded in
achieving the fi rst goal but not the second.
‘Lebanese hate Israel, upset at Nasrallah’, Ynet, 15 July 2006.
‘Neocons: we expected Israel to attack Syria’, Ynet, 16 December
2006.
‘Secretary Rice holds a news conference’, Washington Post, 21
July 2006.
‘IDF prepared for attack by Syria’, Jerusalem Post, 30 July
2006.
‘Bush caught off-guard in chat with Blair’, CNN Online, 17 July
2006.
Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/07/20060
721-5.html
The Max Boot article was published in the Los Angeles Times
on 19 July 2006.
‘Bolton admits Lebanon truce block’, BBC Online, 22 March
2007.
‘Pines-Paz: We expected the int’l community to end the war for
us’, Ha’aretz, 25 June 2007.
‘A war in the summer?’, Ha’aretz, 23 April 2007; and ‘IDF predicts
possible confl ict with Lebanon, Syria in 2007’, Ha’aretz, 10 January
2007.
‘Mossad chief warned: Home front isn’t ready’, Ha’aretz, 30 March
2007.
‘A home front, but no command’, Ha’aretz, 31 July 2006; ‘Israel
seeks operational link with U.S. missile defense system’, Ha’aretz, 3
January 2007; ‘U.S., IDF hold joint exercise on response to nukes’,
Ha’aretz, 18 March 2007; and ‘Gov’t may resurrect laser-based
missile protection system’, Ha’aretz, 2 August 2007.
‘War clouds gather over the Golan’, Forward, 9 March 2007.
In fact, Syria became so convinced it was facing an imminent attack
from Israel that Olmert used his Passover interviews in April 2007
to reassure Damascus that the Israeli army was not planning to
strike. The reports suggested that Olmert was concerned that a
‘miscalculation’ by Damascus might lead to an overreaction and
start an early war. Possibly, assuming the neocons still wanted Israel
to attack Syria at some point, Olmert hoped to avoid hostilities
with Syria before the army had recovered from its Lebanon failure
and the ‘home front’ was better prepared for rocket attacks (‘Israel
seeks to reassure Syria: no summer attack’, Ha’aretz, 2 April 2007;
‘PMO DG Dinur says home front not ready for war’, Ha’aretz, 12
July 2007).
NOTES TO CHAPTER 2, pp. 36–78 167
Cook 02 chap03 167 21/11/07 06:25:16
‘Make a deal with Syria and weaken the Iran-Hezbollah axis’,
Forward, 26 January 2007. This position concurred with that of
Israel’s head of military intelligence, Amos Yadlin, who, according
to Ha’aretz, believed that Syria’s instincts were ‘to respond, not
initiate military procedures against Israel’. He told the government:
‘Syria is building its military strength, but the likelihood of an all
out-war at Syria’s initiative is low’ (‘MI chief: chances of Syria
starting a war against Israel are low’, Ha’aretz, 26 February
2007).
‘Secret understandings reached between representatives from Israel
and Syria’ and ‘How the covert contacts transpired’, Ha’aretz, 16
January 2007.
‘NSC chief: Syrian bid for talks with Israel is genuine’, Ha’aretz,
8 May 2007; ‘Foreign Ministry memo: Assad sincere’, Jerusalem
Post, 10 May 2007.
Olmert found the leaks so embarrassing that in their immediate
wake he tried to deny that the contacts had ever taken place
(‘Assassination of a peace initiative’, Ha’aretz, 17 January
2007).
‘New forum to call for Syria talks’, Ha’aretz, 28 January 2007.
‘Bush assails Pelosi’s trip to Syria’, International Herald Tribune,
3 April 2007.
‘U.S. offi cial: Peace effort aimed at lessening Arab, EU pressure’,
Ha’aretz, 11 May 2007. See also ‘Israel, U.S. views on Syria talks
unchanged’, Ha’aretz, 25 May 2007.
‘War clouds gather over the Golan’, Forward.
The Baker-Hamilton report is available at: http://www.usip.org/isg/iraq_
study_group_report/report/1206/
‘In Iraq, stay the course – but change it’, New York Sun, 24 October
2006.
‘Deadly triggers’, Newsweek, 24 January 2007; ‘US warns Iran
over Iraqi insurgency’, Guardian, 1 February 2007; and ‘U.S. to
reveal Tehran’s link to Iraq insurgency’, Washington Times, 11
February 2007.
‘US commander accuses Iran of aiding Iraqi Shi’ite insurgency’,
Voice of America Online, 22 June 2006.
‘Top General casts doubt on Tehran’s link to Iraq militias’,
CNN Online, 14 February 2007. See also: ‘Doubts about Iran’,
Newsweek, 8 February 2007.
‘US accuses Iran of supplying arms to Taliban insurgents’, Guardian,
19 April 2007.
‘Iran’s secret plan for summer offensive to force US out of Iraq’,
Guardian, 22 May 2007.
168 NOTES TO CHAPTER 2, pp. 36–78
Cook 02 chap03 168 21/11/07 06:25:16
Bush’s speech is available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases
/2007/01/20070110-7.html
‘Chomsky on why Bush does diplomacy mafi a-style’, Alternet, 26
February 2006.
‘The war of humiliation’, Independent, 2 April 2007.
‘UN Security Council unanimously approves tighter Iran sanctions’,
Ha’aretz, 24 March 2007.
‘American armada prepares to take on Iran’, Daily Telegraph, 25
February 2007.
Olmert’s speech is available at: http://www.pmo.gov.il/PMOEng/
Communication/PMSpeaks/speechher240107.htm
‘Former Mossad chief: Iran cannot destroy Israel’, Jerusalem Post,
19 November 2006. A month later, his successor, Meir Dagan,
observed that the West had plenty of time to engage in diplomatic
negotiations with Tehran (‘Israeli offi cial: we have time to block
Iran nuclear program’, Ha’aretz, 19 December 2006).
‘Blowback’, Jerusalem Post, 6 July 2007.
‘Iranian threat exaggerated, expert says’, Ynet, 17 April 2007.
‘West “humiliating” Iran, says Hans Blix’, Ynet, 26 February
2007.
‘So who’s going to destroy Iran’s nuclear reactor?’, Ha’aretz,
7 March 2007. Strangely, this solid support among Israelis for
an attack appeared not to be dented by the many reports in the
local media of the horrifying array of chemical and biological
weapons Iran supposedly had ready to launch against Israel. See,
for example, ‘Blowback’, Jerusalem Post, 6 July 2007.
See, for example, ‘Iran can also be wiped off the map’, Jerusalem
Post, 8 May 2006.
‘Netanyahu: It’s 1938 and Iran is Germany; Ahmadinejad is
preparing another Holocaust’, Ha’aretz, 14 November 2006.
Ibid.
‘PM: Israel won’t let world sink into apathy over Iran’, Jerusalem
Post, 29 January 2007.
For example, Khamenei said: ‘We will never start a war. We have
no intention of going to war with any state’ (‘Khamenei speech:
excerpts’, BBC Online, 4 June 2006).
See Informed Comment, from 3 May 2006: http://www.juancole.
com/2006/05/hitchens-hacker-and-hitchens.html
‘“Israel must be wiped off the map”: the rumor of the century’,
Anti-war.com, 26 May 2007.
A few months earlier, these two issues had been directly linked
when an Iranian newspaper arranged a Holocaust International
NOTES TO CHAPTER 2, pp. 36–78 169
Cook 02 chap03 169 21/11/07 06:25:16
Cartoon Contest (‘In Tehran, a riposte to the Danish cartoons’,
International Herald Tribune, 24 August 2006).
‘Britons to attend Iran’s Holocaust conference’, Guardian,
6 December 2006.
‘Tehran faces backlash over conference to question Holocaust’,
Guardian, 16 January 2006.
CHAPTER 3 END OF THE STRONGMEN, pp. 79–115
One Washington insider, Steven C. Clemons, noted that as Bush fell
increasingly under the infl uence of Rice and Gates, Cheney started
bypassing the White House. ‘The thinking on Cheney’s team is
to collude with Israel, nudging Israel at some key moment in the
ongoing standoff between Iran’s nuclear activities and international
frustration over this to mount a small-scale conventional strike
against Natanz using cruise missiles. This strategy could be expected
to trigger a suffi cient Iranian counter-strike against US forces in
the Gulf as to compel Bush to forgo the diplomatic track that the
administration realists are advocating and engage in another war’
(quoted in Gary Leupp, ‘Cheney, Israel and Iran’, Counterpunch,
26 May 2007).
Quoted in Seymour Hersh, ‘Watching Lebanon’, New Yorker, 21
August 2006.
‘Bush “would understand” attack on Iran’, Jerusalem Post, 2
November 2006; and ‘Bush: I would understand if Israel chose to
attack Iran’, Ha’aretz, 20 November 2006.
‘Iran forces Israeli rethink’, Guardian, 2 April 2007.
‘Revealed: Israel plans nuclear strike on Iran’, The Times, 7 January
2007.
‘If Israel had tactical nukes, would it use them against Iran?’,
Jerusalem Post, 8 January 2007.
‘Former Mossad chief not against taking out Ahmadinejad’, Ynet,
18 April 2007.
‘The push for war’, London Review of Books, 3 October 2002.
‘As US power fades, it can’t fi nd friends to take on Iran’, Guardian,
2 February 2007.
See, for example, Robert Fisk, ‘Lebanon slides towards civil war as
anniversary of Hariri’s murder looms’, Independent, 14 February
2007.
See, for example, ‘Interview: As’ad Abukhalil on the Nahr alBared siege’, Electronic Intifada, 24 May 2007; Jim Quilty, ‘The
Collateral Damage of Lebanese Sovereignty’, Middle East Report
Online, 18 June 2007; and the transcript, dated 22 May 2007, of
170 NOTES TO CHAPTER 3, pp. 79–115
Cook 02 chap03 170 21/11/07 06:25:16
an interview with Seymour Hersh broadcast on CNN that can be
found at: http://rawstory.com/news/2007/Hersh_Bush_arranged_
support_for_militants_0522.html.
Danny Rubinstein, a veteran Ha’aretz correspondent with
excellent contacts in the Arab world, reported unsympathetically
comments from his Palestinian informants that Fatah al-Islam was
funded by Saudi Arabia. ‘The idea was to develop a fanatical
Sunni Muslim force in Lebanon that would effectively act as a
counterweight to the Shi’ite Hezbollah zealots’ (‘In the name of
Islam?’, Ha’aretz, 12 June 2007).
‘Olmert: new Palestinian gov’t must abide by Quartet demands’,
Ha’aretz, 11 February 2007.
‘U.S. pressing Israel to bolster pro-Abbas forces in Gaza’, Ha’aretz,
20 May 2007.
Available at: http://www.congress.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?c108:6:./temp/
~c108fpK2Jj::
Quoted by Seymour Hersh, ‘The Syrian bet’, New Yorker, 28 July
Stephen Zunes points out that President Clinton offered to
remove Syria from the US list of ‘sponsors of terrorism’ during
Israeli-Syrian peace talks in the 1990s. According to US State
Department reports, Damascus has not been directly implicated
in an act of terror since 1986. However, Clinton conditioned
such a removal on Damascus accepting Israel’s terms for peace
(‘Washington takes aim at Syria’, Foreign Policy in Focus, 2 May
2007).
Kaveh Bayat, ‘The ethnic question in Iran’, Middle East Report,
No. 237, Winter 2005.
‘The botched US raid that led to the hostage crisis’, Independent,
3 April 2007.
‘The secret war against Iran’, 3 April 2007. Details of the programme
are available at: http://blogs.abcnews.com/theblotter/2007/04/abc_
news_exclus.html
Interestingly, this was exactly how the international policy was seen
by Iranian offi cials. Alireza Zaker Esfahani, head of the Strategic
Research Centre, a think-tank closely allied to Ahmadinejad,
observed that the US goal was to provoke ‘psychological distress’
among Iranians in an attempt to ‘undermine the unity and solidarity
of the people’ (‘Iran’s “security outlook”’, Middle East Report
Online, 9 July 2007).
‘Livni: Israel cannot accept Arab peace initiative in current form’,
Ha’aretz, March 2007; ‘Livni, Jordanian FM to meet Sunday on
Saudi initiative’, Ha’aretz, 14 April 2007.
NOTES TO CHAPTER 3, pp. 79–115 171
Cook 02 chap03 171 21/11/07 06:25:16
‘Sharon tells cabinet: Saudi plan threatens Israel’s security’,
Ha’aretz, 4 March 2002; ‘Government unimpressed by the latest
version of Saudi peace proposal’, Ha’aretz, 20 April 2002. The
draft text of the 2002 plan is available at: http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/
pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=145479&contrassID=3&subContras
sID=0&sbSubContrassID=0
‘Israel doesn’t want peace’, Ha’aretz, 8 April 2007.
Leader, Financial Times, 5 March 2005, cited in Chomsky, Failed
States, p. 160.
A lone dissenting voice in this divisive debate on the left was
Gabriel Ash. See his ‘AIPAC and the anti-war movement: missing
in action?’, Dissident Voice, 21 April 2007. He critiqued the
Mearsheimer and Walt thesis in ‘Why oppose the Israel lobby?’,
Dissident Voice, 18 April 2006.
‘Bush says U.S. pullout would let Iraq radicals use oil as a weapon’,
Washington Post, 5 November 2006.
‘Chomsky on why Bush does diplomacy mafi a-style’, Alternet, 26
February 2006. An outspoken neocon, Michael Ledeen, reportedly
made much the same point in the early 1990s: ‘Every ten years
or so, the United States needs to pick up some small crappy little
country and throw it against the wall, just to show the world we
mean business’ (quoted in Jonah Goldberg, ‘Baghdad delenda est,
part two’, National Review, 23 April 2002).
‘In 2003, U.S. spurned Iran’s offer of dialogue’, Washington Post,
18 June 2006.
‘Rice denies seeing Iranian proposal in ’03’, Washington Post, 8
February 2007.
The pair did not remain entirely alone in the mainstream. George
Soros, a billionaire businessman and Holocaust survivor, wrote in
the New York Review of Books: ‘Aipac under its current leadership
has clearly exceeded its mission, and far from guaranteeing Israel’s
existence, has endangered it’ (‘On Israel, America and AIPAC’,
vol. 54, no. 6, 12 April 2007). Pulitzer prize-winning columnist
Nicholas Kristof also accused American politicians of muzzling
themselves when it came to Israel’s actions (‘Talking about Israel’,
New York Times, 18 March 2007). On the margins was to be
found a wealth of argument that Israel was shaping, or dictating,
US foreign policy. Key texts include: Stephen Green, Talking Sides:
America’s Secret Relations with a Militant Israel (1984); Edward
Tivnan, The Lobby (1988); Paul Findley, They Dare to Speak Out
(2003); J.J. Goldberg, Jewish Power (2005); and Jim Petras, The
Power of Israel in the US (2006).
‘The Israel lobby’, London Review of Books, 23 March 2006.
172 NOTES TO CHAPTER 3, pp. 79–115
Cook 02 chap03 172 21/11/07 06:25:17
Analyses that focused exclusively on the pro-Israel lobby to explain
US Middle East policy also failed to take into account other
relevant factors, particularly Washington’s growing confi dence in
its own military invincibility following the collapse of the Soviet
Union. Hubris seemed to be a reasonable part of the diagnosis for
the Bush Administration’s excesses and miscalculations.
I first proposed this model in an article entitled ‘End of the
strongmen’, Counterpunch, 19 December 2006. The Syrian
ambassador to London, Sami Khiyami, proposed something
similar in the Guardian a few weeks later: ‘Such objectives can
only be achieved if the coherence of Middle Eastern societies is
undermined. So the aim is not confi ned to toppling regimes, but
extends to questioning the foundations of nation states. A policy
has been designed to encourage sectarianism, ethnic divides,
regional xenophobia, and the eventual Balkanisation of the Arab
Middle East. Sadly, the outcome may be the partition of several
states, producing smaller entities, regarded as easier to manage
and dominate’ (‘The threat of Balkanisation’, 13 March 2007).
Quote from Ledeen’s book, The War Against the Terror Masters,
cited in ‘Flirting with Fascism’, The American Conservative, 30
June 2003.
‘Cheney’s grim vision: decades of war’, San Francisco Chronicle,
15 January 2004.
The determination of many on the left to take a stand on one side
or the other in this debate of who was driving US and Israeli policy
led to some unfortunate special pleading. In an otherwise clearsighted analysis of the 2006 Lebanon war, for example, Stephen
Zunes tried to characterise Israel as a ‘victim’ of neocon policy
(‘U.S. role in Lebanon debacle’, Foreign Policy in Focus, 18 May
2007).
The ‘science’ of understanding the Arab mind is well entrenched
in the Israeli academy, with well-known exponents including
Arnon Sofer, Raphael Israeli and David Bukay. Israeli, of Hebrew
University, who was called to give ‘expert’ testimony on behalf of
the state in a trial in 2004, observed that the Arab mentality was
composed of ‘a sense of victimization’, ‘pathological anti-Semitism’
and ‘a tendency to live in a world of illusions’ (Sultany, Israel and
the Palestinian Minority: 2004, p. 102).
Seymour Hersh, ‘The Gray Zone’, New Yorker, 24 May 2004,
and ‘The General’s Report’, New Yorker, 25 June 2007.
Israel Shahak revealed that on the third day of the Suez war, Prime
Minister David Ben Gurion told the Knesset that the job of Israel’s
soldiers was ‘to re-establish the kingdom of David and Solomon’
NOTES TO CHAPTER 3, pp. 79–115 173
Cook 02 chap03 173 21/11/07 06:25:17
by annexing the Sinai. Shahak records that at that point the whole
Knesset, apart from four Communist MKs, stood and sang the
national anthem (Open Secrets, p. 44).
See, for example: ‘Israel reveals secrets of how it gained bomb’,
Daily Telegraph, 22 December 2001; ‘How the UK gave Israel
the bomb’ and ‘US kept in the dark as secret nuclear deal was
struck’, Guardian, 4 August 2005; ‘Papers reveal UK’s nuclear aid
to Israel’, Guardian, 10 December 2005.
Cohen, Whistleblowers and the Bomb, pp. 12–13.
This revelation was made in the Hebrew edition, published in
2005, of a book on the 1967 war by Segev. Rather than destroying
all copies of the book, Israel’s military censor agreed to the line
about nuclear weapons being covered with correction fl uid (‘How
Israel’s nuclear secret just slipped out’, The Age, 23 July 2005).
The book was published in English in May 2007 under the title
1967: Israel, the War, and the Year that Transformed the Middle
East. Segev made the point again, this time uncensored, in Ha’aretz
in summer 2007, when he noted that Shimon Peres had done his
best to prevent Israel from launching the Six-Day War. ‘A few days
before [the war] began he proposed that it be averted by means of
a nuclear test: The Arabs would be frightened off, Israeli deterrence
would be rehabilitated, there would be no need to attack Egypt.
[Prime minister] Levi Eshkol and [defence minister] Moshe Dayan
rejected the idea’ (‘Dreaming with Shimon’, 19 July 2007).
Stephen Green, Taking Sides: America’s Secret Relations with a
Militant Israel, 1948–1967 (London: Faber and Faber, 1984),
p. 20, cited in Hirst, The Gun and the Olive Branch, p. 107.
The strategic relationship probably grew following the Suez crisis,
with both countries seeing it as in their interests to contain Egypt’s
Nasser. In 1965 the US lent Israel $13 million for military purposes;
by 1966, the year before the Six-Day War, the aid had jumped to
$90 million (Clyde R. Mark, ‘Israel–U.S. foreign assistance facts’,
Congressional Record, 1 May 1990, pp. 5420–3, cited in Sheldon
L. Richman, ‘“Ancient history”: U.S. conduct in the Middle East
since World War II and the folly of intervention’, Cato Policy
Analysis, no. 159, 16 August 1991).
‘Senator Fulbright, 1967: The trouble is that the Jews think they
have control of the Senate’, Ha’aretz, 11 April 2007.
See ‘The tentacles of a porcupine’ and ‘What price friendship?’,
Ha’aretz, 13 April 2007.
US News and World Report, 19 June 1967, cited in ‘“The Israel
lobby” in perspective’, Middle East Report, no. 243, Summer
2007.
174 NOTES TO CHAPTER 3, pp. 79–115
Cook 02 chap03 174 21/11/07 06:25:17
The same transcripts of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee
(see notes 44 and 45) show several Senators in awe of Israel’s
performance on the battlefi eld. On 7 June 1967, Senator Stuart
Symington observed: ‘In the last 12 hours, in 12 hours, I think it is
fair to say … General Dayan has really accomplished more against
three or four countries … than we have in two years in Vietnam.’
Senator Gordon Allott added: ‘Fortunately for the United States, a
courageous people, with guts and foresight, have saved our bacon
… in the eyes of the world.’
Honore Catudal, Israel’s Nuclear Weaponry: A New Arms race
in the Middle East (London: Grey Seal, 1991), pp.13–42, cited in
Hirst, The Gun and the Olive Branch, p. 119.
George Ball and Douglas Ball, The Passionate Attachment,
p. 201.
Today, the Christian Zionists are reported to number in the tens of
millions in the US. They believe that the Jews must return to the
land promised them by God to bring about the Second Coming.
Any Jews who have not converted to Christianity before the
Messiah’s arrival will perish in the Battle of Armageddon. Bush
draws signifi cant support from the Christian Zionists and this has
been cited as one of the reasons for his strong support of Israel.
See Gershom Gorenberg, The End of Days.
The Passionate Attachment, p. 212.
See Finkelstein, Beyond Chutzpah, Part One.
‘Economist tallies swelling cost of Israel to US’, Christian Science
Monitor, 9 December 2002. The same economist, Thomas Stauffer,
who had originally made the calculations for the US army, believed
that the cost doubled if the price of instability in the region caused
by the Israeli-Palestinian confl ict was included (‘The costs to
American taxpayers of the Israeli-Palestinian confl ict: $3 trillion’,
Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, June 2003).
Mitchell Plitnick and Chris Toensing, ‘“The Israel lobby” in
perspective’, Middle East Report, no. 243, Summer 2007.
Many theories have been advanced for not only why Israel not
only attacked the Liberty but also sought to sink it, and why
Washington has never held an inquiry or released key documents
relating to the event. One intriguing possibility is that Israel hoped
that, if there were no survivors of the Liberty, it could be made to
look as if Egypt attacked the ship and the US would be drawn into
attacking Cairo. In fact, the available evidence suggests that the
US very nearly did attack Egypt, only calling back its warplanes
at the last moment. A BBC documentary on this subject, Dead
NOTES TO CHAPTER 3, pp. 79–115 175
Cook 02 chap03 175 21/11/07 06:25:17
in the Water, can be viewed at: http://www.informationclearinghouse.
info/article5073.htm
The Passionate Attachment, p. 58.
Ibid., pp. 105–7.
Tinderbox, p. 40. Zunes rather simplifi es this relationship. Israel
used its infl uence in Washington to try to prevent US arms sales to
the Arab regimes, including Bush’s $33 billion spending bonanza
in summer 2007 (‘U.S. Congressmen say will try to block proposed
Saudi arms deal’, Ha’aretz, 30 July 2007). Israel also damaged the
interests of US arms manufacturers over many decades by secretly
selling components of US military technology in its possession.
Recent covert arms sales to China led to a rare show of US hostility
towards Israel (‘US acts over Israeli arms sales to China’, Guardian,
13 June 2005).
‘US accused of fuelling arms race with $20bn Arab weapons sale’,
Guardian, 30 July 2007.
Israel Shahak notes, for example, that Jordan’s peace treaty with
Israel in 1994 offered strategic advantages to the Israeli air force,
opening a direct route to Iraq and Iran. Or as the veteran military
correspondent Amir Oren revealed shortly before the signing
ceremony: ‘The agreement is intended to establish a military
alliance between Israel and Jordan and thus extend the boundary
of Israel’s military presence to the eastern tip of the Jordanian
desert … Israel’s undisguised military presence there, right on the
border of Iraq, means that the route of its war planes to Iran
will be hundreds of kilometres shorter.’ Oren noted that, with
Jordan expected to grant Israel the right to overfl y its territory
in ‘emergency situations’, the air force could undertake bombing
missions without refuelling stops (quoted in Shahak, Open Secrets,
pp. 78–9).
George Ball notes that Ben Gurion made this comment in a diary
entry for 24 May 1948 and that Moshe Sharrett reported a similar
comment from Ben Gurion in his own diary on 27 February 1954
(The Passionate Attachment, p. 120). Michael Bar-Zohar, Ben
Gurion’s biographer, reports the Israeli leader making much the
same observation in 1956 (Ben-Gurion, p. 236).
The Passionate Attachment, p. 121.
The English translation is taken from ‘From the Israeli press’,
Journal of Palestine Studies, vol. 11, no. 3 (Spring, 1982),
p. 169.
Ibid., pp. 169–70.
Ibid., pp. 171–2.
See, for example, Reinhart, Israel/Palestine, Chapter 4.
176 NOTES TO CHAPTER 3, pp. 79–115
Cook 02 chap03 176 21/11/07 06:25:17
In 2002 the Middle East Studies Association allowed Gazit to
‘review’ Shahak’s book. Although Shahak translated the article
by Gazit cited here from Hebrew, Gazit makes no claim in the
review that his opinions have been misrepresented and produces
no evidence to dispute Shahak’s argument. Instead, he simply
ignores the evidence of his own writings and states: ‘I have known
Israel intimately for the past seventy years … Upon reading Open
Secrets, I asked myself if the two of us had been living in the same
country.’ The review is available at: http://fp.arizona.edu/mesassoc/
Bulletin/36-1/36-1Israel-ArabWorld.htm#Shahak
Open Secrets, p. 41.
Ibid., p. 42.
Ibid., p. 43.
‘For Israel, September 11 was a Hanukkah miracle’, Ha’aretz, 18
December 2001.
‘The stale myth of battlefi eld bravado’, Ha’aretz, 13 April 2007.
Richard Sale, UPI, 1 March 2001, cited in Reinhart, Israel/Palestine,
p. 199.
Ha’aretz, 19 October 2001, cited in ibid., p. 202.
Yed’iot Aharonot, 7 November 2000, cited in ibid., p. 200.
‘Surprising conversations’, Ha’aretz, 1 June 2007.
Open Secrets, p. 43.
Journal of Palestine Studies, vol. 11, no. 3 (Spring, 1982),
p. 168.
The fi rst use of this phrase is usually attributed to the infl uential
neocon thinker Bernard Lewis in an article entitled ‘The roots of
Muslim rage’, published in the Atlantic Monthly in September
Similar ideas, however, have popular and deep roots in
Israeli thinking, where for decades generals, politicians, academics
and journalists have characterised Israel as an outpost of Western
civilisation in a hostile Arab and Muslim world.
See ‘From the Israeli press’, Journal of Palestine Studies, vol. 11, no.
4 (Summer–Autumn, 1982), pp. 209–14; Israel Shahak’s version,
which was translated at the request of the Association of Arab
American University Graduates following immediately in the wake
of Israel’s invasion of Lebanon, is available online at: http://theunjustmedia.com/the%20zionist_plan_for_the_middle_east.htm
‘Egypt and the Zionist plan of division’, Al-Ahram Weekly, 12–18
July 2007. This article was one of four in which Nafaa examined
Yinon’s approach to the Middle East, warning readers that Yinon’s
essay encapsulated decades of Zionist thinking towards the Arab
world.
NOTES TO CHAPTER 3, pp. 79–115 177
Cook 02 chap03 177 21/11/07 06:25:17
The quotes used here are from the Journal of Palestine Studies
translation; p. 210.
Ibid., p. 209.
Ibid., p. 210.
Ibid., p. 211.
Ibid., p. 212.
Ibid., p. 213–4.
Bar-Zohar, Ben-Gurion, p. 236.
Abba Eban, Personal Witness: Israel Through My Eyes (New York:
1992), p. 92, cited in Shlaim, The Iron Wall, p. 178.
Shlaim, The Iron Wall, p. 185.
‘Israel: the ultimate winner’, Al-Ahram Weekly, 17–23 April
2003.
Bar-Zohar, Ben-Gurion, p. 260.
Ibid., p. 262.
Hersh, ‘Plan B’, New Yorker, 28 June 2004; ‘Israelis “train Kurdish
forces”’, BBC Online, 20 September 2006.
Israel Shahak noted that, in the last days before the Shah’s fall,
Ariel Sharon had prepared to send elite units of the Israeli army
to Tehran to help Iran’s generals, but the plan was overruled at
the last minute by Menachem Begin (Open Secrets, p. 44).
David Nyhan, Boston Globe, 21 October 1982, cited in Chomsky,
The Fateful Triangle, p. 457.
Ibid., pp. x–xi.
Ibid., p. 463.
Ibid., p. 455.
‘Castle of sand’, Yed’iot Aharonot, 9 August 1982, cited in ibid.,
p. 459.
‘Egypt and the Zionist plan of division’, Al-Ahram Weekly. Similar
plans for the Sinai have been intermittently resurrected. In late
2005 Uzi Arad, a former head of Mossad intelligence and the
organiser of the Herzliya conferences – and probably one of the
most infl uential Israeli thinkers behind the scenes – promoted a
scheme put forward by Yehoshua Ben Arieh, the former rector of
Hebrew University. In it, Israel would give Egypt a corridor of land
in the Negev while Cairo would donate part of the northern Sinai
to Gaza’s Palestinians. In return, Israel would receive large areas
of the West Bank from the Palestinians (‘Trading land for peace’,
New Republic, 28 November 2005).
Journal of Palestine Studies, vol. 11, no. 4, p. 214.
178 NOTES TO CHAPTER 3, pp. 79–115
Cook 02 chap03 178 21/11/07 06:25:17
CHAPTER 4 REMAKING THE MIDDLE EAST, pp. 116–149
For a useful overview of the al-Qaeda phenomenon, see Jason
Burke’s Al-Qaeda.
The idea of ‘permanent war’ had been articulated by an Israeli
general, Yitzhak Rabin, back in 1991, according to Israel Shahak.
Rabin told his Labor Knesset faction that Israel was doomed to
live forever in war, or under the threat of war, from the entire
Arab world. He also argued that Israel ‘must assume an essentially
aggressive role, so as to be in the position to dictate the terms of
a conclusion’, and that any attack on Israeli soil would incur the
following response: ‘They will be destroyed root and branch’.
Shahak believed Rabin was referring to using tactical nuclear
weapons against such enemies (Open Secrets, p. 46).
‘The war on terror won’t end in Baghdad’, Wall Street Journal, 4
September 2002.
‘The war drummers’, Counterpunch, 10 September 2002.
Similar contempt for the oil industry and its allies’ obsession
with stability was shown in late 2002 by David Frum, a former
editor at the Wall Street Journal, speechwriter for President Bush
and a resident fellow of the American Enterprise Institute, part
of the neocon establishment: ‘Listen to the retired offi cials and
distinguished public servants who have criticised President Bush’s
Iraq policy – the Brent Scowcrofts and the James Bakers, the
Anthony Zinnis and the Laurence Eagleburgers – and you will
hear that word “stability” over and over again. “Stability” means
oil.’ Interestingly, Frum pointed this out as he tried to make the
following revealing argument: Bush, he said, wanted to bring
democracy to Iraq but the oil industry opposed democratisation, believing it would provoke a civil war that would be bad
for business. Therefore, according to Frum, a war against Iraq
could not be about oil (‘America in the dock’, Daily Telegraph,
21 October 2002).
‘James Baker’s disciples’, Jerusalem Post, 7 June 2007.
One minor theory worth noting was that, in occupying Iraq, the
US would have control of the country’s extensive water system that
feeds the rivers of neighbouring states. On this view, Washington
may have seen such control as leverage it could use to pressure
states and groups in the region (Stephen Pelletiere, ‘A war crime
or an act of war?’, New York Times, 31 January 2003).
The article is available at: http://www.palestinecenter.org/cpap/pubs/
20020418ftr.html
‘The push for war’, London Review of Books, 3 October 2002.
NOTES TO CHAPTER 4, pp. 116–149 179
Cook 02 chap03 179 21/11/07 06:25:17
Mike Whitney, ‘Putin’s censored press conference’, Signs of the
Times, 10 June 2007, available at: http://www.signs-of-the-times.org/
articles/show/134240-Putin’s+Censored+Press+Conference:+The
+transcript+you+weren’t+supposed+to+see+
Reuters, ‘China weighs Iran and Iraq risks for oil prize’, 27
November 2006.
Chomsky, ‘Beyond the ballot’, Khaleej Times, 6 January 2006.
Quoted in Shahak’s online foreword to Yinon’s article, dated 13
June 1982.
There were plenty of reports of Israel using experimental weapons
in the occupied territories during the second intifada and before.
See, for example, my article ‘Vale of tears’, Al-Ahram Weekly,
5 April 2001; ‘Italian probe: Israel used new weapon prototype
in Gaza Strip’, Ha’aretz, 11 October 2006; ‘Gaza doctors say
patients suffering mystery injuries after Israeli attacks’, Guardian,
17 October 2006. Israel also admitted using phosphorus bombs
in Lebanon in 2006: ‘Israel admits it used phosphorus weapons’,
Guardian, 23 October 2006. There was evidence Israel had used
enriched uranium devices there too: ‘An enigma that only the
Israelis can fully explain’, Independent, 28 October 2006.
‘Laboratory for a fortressed world’, The Nation, 14 June 2007.
An interesting sidenote concerns the background of the head of the
Homeland Security Department, Michael Chertoff. His father, an
American rabbi, married Livia Eisen, who lived in Israel for many
years and was an air hostess for the country’s national carrier El Al
in the 1950s. There are reports that she was involved in Operation
Magic Carpet, which brought Jews to Israel from Yemen. It
therefore seems possible that Livia Eisen was an Israeli national,
and one with possible links to the Mossad. Unusually, Chertoff was
not questioned about his background or his connections to Israel
during the US Senate hearing in 2005 into his appointment.
These practices were honed during the fi rst 20 years of the state,
when Israel’s Palestinian citizens lived under martial law, and are
discussed in my book Blood and Religion. For an insight into how
similar practices continue to this day, see ‘Nobody has forgotten
about October’, Ha’aretz, 1 June 2007.
Hirst, The Gun and the Olive Branch, pp. 520–6.
Kimmerling, Politicide, p. 76.
For more on this opposition, see my book Blood and Religion,
especially Chapter 1.
For the evolution of this policy, see my book Blood and Religion,
Chapter 4.
180 NOTES TO CHAPTER 4, pp. 116–149
Cook 02 chap03 180 21/11/07 06:25:17
Map available at: http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/fullMaps_Sa.nsf/
luFullMap/2E4FB73CC49B3CD9C12572F30041476A/$File/
ocha_ACC_opt070507.pdf?OpenElement
There is evidence that Sharon and the army wanted to kill Arafat
much earlier but were prevented by Washington from doing so
while the coalition against Iraq was being built. According to a
Sharon confi dant, the journalist Uri Dan, Bush eventually gave
permission for Israel to kill Arafat so long as it was done in a way
that could not be detected (Uri Avnery, ‘If Arafat were still alive’,
Guardian, 31 January 2007).
Israel and the US tried various ways to strengthen Fatah against
Hamas. In November 2006, a US general admitted that Washington
was building up Fatah’s forces to give them the edge against
Hamas (Reuters, ‘U.S. general says building up Abbas’s guard’,
24 November 2006). In December, US and European offi cials
visited a training base for Fatah’s Badr Brigade in Jordan to
discuss deploying its 1,000 members in Gaza and the West Bank
(‘PA offi cial: Haniyeh, Abbas will meet in Jordan later this week’,
Ha’aretz, 25 December 2006). Then Egypt sent a shipment of arms
to forces loyal to Abbas in Gaza (‘Israel confi rms arms shipment
sent to aid Abbas’, New York Times, 28 December 2006). Plans
to step up this aid emerged in spring 2007 (‘Israel backs U.S. plan
to arm pro-Abbas forces’, Ha’aretz, 16 April 2007).
The 53-page leaked report can be viewed at: http://image.guardian.
co.uk/sys-fi les/Guardian/documents/2007/06/12/DeSotoReport.
pdf
‘U.S. pressing Israel to bolster pro-Abbas forces in Gaza’, Ha’aretz,
20 May 2007; ‘Israel agrees to allow Abbas-controlled Presidential
Guard to train near Jericho’, Ha’aretz, 24 May 2007.
‘Fatah defi ant on West Bank as Hamas takes Gaza’, Guardian, 15
June 2007.
‘Hamas acted on a very real fear of a US-sponsored coup’,
Guardian, 22 June 2007.
‘Washington rallies behind Abbas with end to Palestinian boycott’,
Guardian, 19 June 2007.
‘Abbas wins US backing as Fatah stages revenge raids’, Independent,
17 June 2007.
‘Sharon’s dream’, Ha’aretz, 18 June 2007.
‘World Bank scolds Israel for impeding travel in West Bank’,
Ha’aretz, 9 May 2007.
In this mythologised view of US foreign policy, Paul Wolfowitz
was often cited as the chief proponent of the democratisation
model. His sudden interest in democracy for the Middle East was,
NOTES TO CHAPTER 4, pp. 116–149 181
Cook 02 chap03 181 21/11/07 06:25:18
however, hard to reconcile with his earlier career, including his
time as US ambassador to Indonesia in the late 1980s when he was
fi ercely loyal to the country’s dictator, General Suharto. When later,
in 1999, the US promoted Indonesia’s withdrawal from occupied
East Timor, Wolfowitz objected, in the words of one reporter, on
the grounds that, ‘due to tribal and clan-based tensions, [East
Timor] would descend into civil war. Only the TNI [Indonesian
army] had prevented such an outcome, according to Wolfowitz’
(‘Wolfowitz visited Indonesia for closer military ties, not tsunami
relief’, Pacifi c News Service, 19 January 2005).
‘It is not only God that will be Blair’s judge over Iraq’, Guardian,
14 May 2007.
‘US: can Congress defy Bush?’, March 2007.
‘As US power fades, it can’t fi nd friends to take on Iran’, Guardian,
2 February 2007.
Chomsky, Failed States, p. 147.
Coping with Crumbling States: A Western and Israeli Balance of
Power Strategy for the Levant, Institute for Advanced Strategic
and Political Studies, December 1996. Available at: http://www.iasps.
org/strat2.htm
‘Shattered illusions’, Al-Ahram Weekly, 19 April 2007.
‘U.S. intelligence agencies predicted problems U.S. now facing in
Iraq’, Ha’aretz, 26 May 2007.
‘Intelligence, policy, and the war in Iraq’, Foreign Affairs, March/
April 2006.
‘The full transcript of evidence given to the Butler inquiry’,
Independent, 15 December 2006.
‘The real news in the Downing Street memos’, Los Angeles Times,
23 June 2005.
‘The calamity of disregard’, Guardian, 4 August 2007.
The ideology of Ba’athism emerged in 1950s Damascus. Its core
belief was that the Arab nation had a special mission to end colonial
interference and promote humanitarianism through becoming a
mass socialist movement. Ba’athism concentrated on land reform
and public ownership of natural resources.
Pipes, ‘Civil war in Iraq?’, New York Sun, 28 February 2006.
Pepe Escobar, ‘Exit strategy: civil war’, Asia Times, 10 June
2005.
This was also the diagnosis of Iraq’s future made by Hizbullah
leader Sheikh Hassan Nasrallah: ‘The daily killing and displacement
which is taking place in Iraq aims at achieving three Iraqi parts,
which will be sectarian and ethnically pure as a prelude to the
partition of Iraq. Within one or two years at the most, there will
182 NOTES TO CHAPTER 4, pp. 116–149
Cook 02 chap03 182 21/11/07 06:25:18
be total Sunni areas, total Shiite areas, and total Kurdish areas.
Even in Baghdad, there is a fear that it might be divided into two
areas, one Sunni and one Shiite … A day will come when [Bush]
will say, “I cannot do anything, since the Iraqis want the partition
of their country and I honor the wishes of the people of Iraq”’
(quoted in ‘The redirection’, New Yorker, 5 March 2007).
‘Sharon warned Bush’, Forward, 12 January 2007.
‘America ponders cutting Iraq in three’, The Times, 8 October
2006.
‘Kurdistan’s covert back-channels’, Mother Jones, 11 April
2007.
‘French report: former U.N. envoy Bolton says U.S. has “no
strategic interest” in united Iraq’, International Herald Tribune,
29 January 2007.
The Case for Soft Partition in Iraq, Saban Center analysis, no. 12,
June 2007, available at: http://www.brook.edu/fp/saban/analysis/
june2007iraq_partition.htm
‘Divide and rule – America’s plan for Baghdad’, Independent, 11
April 2007.
‘Latest US solution to Iraq’s civil war: a three-mile wall’, Guardian,
21 April 2007.
‘Regional implications of the Iraq War’, Foreign Policy in Focus,
27 March 2007.
The speech is available at: http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2005/48328.
htm
See for example, Reuters, ‘U.S. sends more arms to Lebanon’, 26
May 2007. Robert Fisk noted, however, that the weapons being
sent by the US to the Lebanese army had been doctored, at the
request of Israel, so that they could not be used to defend the
country in case of war between the two. ‘The Gazelles [helicopters]
have no rockets – courtesy of the United States, because Israel
fears they will be used against its own forces. The Belgians even
offered Leopard tanks – again vetoed by the United States – in
case the Lebanese used them against the Israelis. So the Lebanese
are armed suffi ciently to fi ght Palestinians, but not enough to fi ght
their enemies on their southern frontier’ (‘Can the Lebanese army
fi ght America’s war against terror?’, Independent, 3 June 2007).
‘Hizbullah accuses US of secret war and arming opponents’,
Guardian, 11 April 2007.
‘Lebanon “smashes Israel spy ring”’, BBC Online, 18 May
2004.
‘Beirut to complain to UN about “Israeli” hand in assassinations’,
Ha’aretz, 17 June 2006.
NOTES TO CHAPTER 4, pp. 116–149 183
Cook 02 chap03 183 21/11/07 06:25:18
UPI, ‘Terror in Beirut’, 26 June 2005.
‘Beirut to complain to UN about “Israeli” hand in assassinations’,
Ha’aretz.
‘CIA running black propaganda operation against Iran, Syria and
Lebanon, offi cials say’, Raw Story, 4 June 2007.
‘The coming wars’, New Yorker, 24 January 2005.
‘The Iran plans’, New Yorker, 17 April 2006.
‘The redirection’, New Yorker, 5 March 2007.
Ibid.
A transcript, dated 22 May 2007, of the interview, with CNN,
can be found at: http://rawstory.com/news/2007/Hersh_Bush_
arranged_support_for_militants_0522.html
Toby Jones, ‘The Iraq effect in Saudi Arabia’, Middle East Report,
no. 237, Winter 2005.
‘If US leaves Iraq we will arm Sunni militias, Saudis say’, Guardian,
14 December 2006.
Morten Valbjorn and Andre Bank, ‘Signs of a new Arab cold war’,
Middle East Report, no. 242, Spring 2007.
Ibid.
‘Why the United Nations belongs in Iraq’, 20 July 2007.
‘US accuses Saudis of telling lies about Iraq’, 28 July 2007.
‘US arms Sunni dissidents in risky bid to contain al-Qaida fi ghters
in Iraq’, Guardian, 12 June 2007.
Timothy Garton Ash, ‘Faced with the tragedy of Iraq, the US must
rethink its whole foreign policy’, Guardian, 14 June 2007. Shortly
afterwards American inspectors discovered that 190,000 weapons
– 110,000 AK-47s and 80,000 pistols – given to the Iraqi security
forces by the US army had gone missing, and presumably ended
up in the hands of the insurgents or criminals (‘US “loses track”
of Iraq weapons’, BBC Online, 6 August 2007).
Carter Malkasian, ‘America’s tribal strategy for Iraq’, Comment
is Free, Guardian, 15 June 2007.
‘Seymour Hersh and Iran’, Counterpunch, 5 March 2007.
Such a view was supported by a report in the Guardian in summer
2007 which argued that Vice-President Dick Cheney was again
gaining the upper hand against Rice and Gates on a showdown
with Iran. A Washington source reportedly observed that ‘Mr Bush
and Mr Cheney did not trust any potential successors in the White
House, Republican or Democratic, to deal with Iran decisively.
They are also reluctant for Israel to carry out any strikes because
the US would get the blame in the region anyway.’ Patrick Cronin, a
director at the UK-based International Institute of Strategic Studies,
added: ‘The red line is not in Iran. The red line is in Israel. If Israel
184 NOTES TO CHAPTER 4, pp. 116–149
Cook 02 chap03 184 21/11/07 06:25:18
is adamant it will attack, the US will have to take decisive action.
The choices are: tell Israel no, let Israel do the job, or do the job
yourself’ (‘Cheney pushes Bush to act on Iran’, Guardian, 16 July
2007).
Quoted in ‘The redirection’, New Yorker, 5 March 2007.
‘Fighting the next war’, Jerusalem Post, 19 April 2007.
NOTES TO CHAPTER 4, pp. 116–149 185
Cook 02 chap03 185 21/11/07 06:25:18
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Cook 02 chap03 188 21/11/07 06:25:18
189
Abbas, Mahmoud, 83, 129–30,
181n
ABC News, 84, 142
Abdel Jawwad, Saleh, 110–12
Abdul Ahad, Ghaith, x–xi
Abdullah, king of Saudi Arabia,
144–5
Abrams, Elliott, 24, 26, 31, 47, 60,
70, 88, 130, 157n
Abu Ghraib prison, 94
Adhamiya, 139
Afghanistan,
and al-Qaeda, 28
and sectarian tensions, 109
and the Taliban, 17, 117, 156n
as a US base, 39
Iranian involvement, claims of,
72, 158n
Soviet invasion of, 18
US attack on, xii, xvii, 43, 117,
156n
Agha, Hussein, 7
Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud
and nuclear programme, 46
and Syria, 65, 69
Hitler, comparison with, 40,
75–6
Holocaust, denial of, 77–8
threat of assassination, 80
‘wipe Israel off the map’, 57, 74,
75–7
Aiken, George, 96
al-Faisal, Prince Turki, 145
al-Faisal, Saud, 144
al-Hamishmar, 41, 102
al-Maliki, Nuri, 12, 13, 145
al-Qaeda, 179n
and Iran, 72
and Iraq, 7, 29–30, 72, 134,
146–7
and Saudi Arabia, 119
and Syria, 84
and Afghanistan, xvii, 28
and the ‘war on terror’, 40, 85,
92–3, 143, 144, 147
rise of, 17, 116–17
al-Sadr, Moqtada, 145
al-Watan, 65
Alawis, 44, 108, 109
Albright, Madeleine, 23
Alexandrovna, Larisa, 142
Alfonzo, Juan Pablo Perez, 154n
Algeria, 12
Aljibury, Falah, 31
Allawi, Iyad, 137
Allott, Gordon, 175n
Alpher, Yossi, 159n
American Enterprise Institute, 23,
47, 84, 118, 179n
American Israel Public Affairs
Committee (AIPAC), 23, 47,
48, 89–90, 121, 155n, 159n,
172n
American University, 139
Amit, Meir, 80
Amitay, Morris, 48
Amos, General James, 139
an-Nahar, 59
Annan, Kofi , 151n
Anderson, Sir Roy, 5, 151n
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (1972),
160n
anti-Semitism, 32, 35, 52, 98,
162n, 173n
Aoun, Michel, 163n
INDEX
Cook 03 index 189 21/11/07 06:25:02
190 INDEX
Arab Association for Human
Rights (Nazareth), 58
Arab League, 19, 20, 84
Arab nationalism, threat of, 10–11,
18, 94, 100, 110, 111, 132,
136
Arad, Uzi, 60, 79, 178n
Arafat, Yasser, 26, 35, 128, 129,
181n
Arens, Moshe, 112
Armitage, Richard, 156n, 164n
arms deals, 24, 48, 68, 97, 98,
99–100, 111, 112, 125, 144,
146, 161n, 176n, 181n, 183n
Arrow missiles, 68
Ash, Gabriel, 172n
Assad, Bashar, 35, 65, 69, 70, 83
Association of Arab American
University Graduates, 177n
Atta, Mohammad, 157n
Atlantic Monthly, 177n
Avnery, Uri, 119, 150n
AWACS, 19, 98
Ayalon, Danny, 34–5, 137, 159n
Azeris, 84, 143
Ba’ath party, 11, 18, 29, 31, 136,
148, 182n
Badr Brigade, 181n
Baer, Robert, 164n
Baghdad, 139, see also Iraq
Bahrain, 109
Baker, James, 7, 16, 21, 71, 119–20
Baker-Hamilton Report, 72
Bali, Asli U, 50
Ball, George, 97, 99, 176n
Baluchis, 84, 143
bantustans, 130–1
Bar-Zohar, Michael, 110–11, 176n
Barak, Ehud, 42, 102, 106, 128
Bargewell, Eldon, 6
Barnea, Nahum, 44
Basra, 110
Bay of Pigs, 88
BBC, 67, 175n
BearingPoint, 153n
Bechor, Guy, 105
Begin, Menachem, 99, 178n
Beirut, see Lebanon
Belgium, 48
Ben Arieh, Yehoshua, 178n
Ben Eliezer, Binyamin, 33–4, 43, 63
Ben Gurion, David, 63, 100–1,
110–11, 149, 173n, 176n
Benn, Aluf, 35, 41, 42, 64
Benvenisti, Meron, 104
Benziman, Uzi, 45
Bir Zeit University, 110
Bishara, Azmi, 133
Blair, Tony, 66, 135
Blix, Hans, 75
Bloomberg School of Public Health,
5
‘blowback’, xii, 17, 28, 127
Bolton, John, 26, 44, 67, 90, 138,
157n
Boot, Max, 67
Boston Globe, 112
Bremer, Paul, xi, 31
Britain,
and arms sales, 125
and Iran, 73, 112
and Iraq, 4, 5, 8, 33, 134, 135,
146
and Israel, 76, 94–5
and Lebanon, 142
and Russia, 160n
and the Suez War (1956), 94,
110
and Zionism, 95
colonial role, 9, 11, 14, 16, 22,
108, 123, 126
British Petroleum (BP), 153n
Brookings Institution, 138
Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 46
Bubiyan island, 20
Budapest, 74
Bukay, David, 173n
Burghardt, Jutta, 23
Burns, Nicholas, 37
Burns, William, 47
Cook 03 index 190 21/11/07 06:25:02
INDEX 191
Burton, Fred, 142
Bush Administration, see United
States
Bush, George H.W. (Bush Snr), 21,
90, 98
Bush, George W. (Bush Jnr), see
also United States
and Christian Zionists, 175n
and diplomacy, 170n
and Iran, 52, 144, 184n
and Iraq, 3–4, 8, 9, 45, 72
and Jacques Chirac, 79
and Lebanon, 60
and the Libby trial, 156n
and the neocons, 23–4, 25, 27,
132
and the regional conference
(2007), 99–100, 146
and Saudi/oil links, 16, 119
and Sharon, 33, 34, 43–4, 137
and Syria, 69
at the G8 summit, 66
axis of evil speech, 28
criticism of, 14
on oil ‘blackmail’, 86
on the Shia threat, 144
Bush at War, 29
Bushehr reactor, 49
Butler inquiry, 135
Cairo, 139
Camp David (1978), 106
Carter Doctrine, 18–19, 92
Carter, Jimmy, 18, 46, 92, 99,
152n
Case, Clifford, 96
Casey, General George, 72
Castro, Fidel, 150n
Cedar Revolution, 140
Centcom, 18, 51
Center for Security Policy, 23
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA),
2, 11, 14, 17, 20, 29, 37, 82,
84, 95, 112, 142
Chalabi, Ahmed, 31, 142
Chandrasekaran, Rajiv, x–xi
Cheney, Dick
and Iran, 49, 79, 87, 142, 170n,
184n
and Iraq, 14, 30, 158n
and the Lebanon War (2006), 60
and the neocons, 25, 27, 90
and the Saudis, 144
and Syria, 69
on permanent war, 92–3, 104,
117
Chertoff, Michael, 180n
ChevronTexaco, 153n
Chile, xii
China,
and arms sales, 98, 176n
and Iran, 50, 52
and the neocons, 27
and oil, 30, 124
US, threat to, 28, 123, 124, 160n
Chirac, Jacques, 79
Chomsky, Noam,
on democracy promotion, 132–3
on Iraq and Vietnam, xii–xiii
on Ottomanisation, 113–14
on a possible Shia alliance, 124
on the ‘surge’, 73
on US control of oil, 9–11
on US foreign policy, 86–8
Christian Zionism, 97, 175n
Clark, General Wesley, 158n
‘clash of civilisations’, theory of, xv,
10, 26, 106, 108, 111, 177n,
see also neocons and Israel
Clawson, Patrick, 52
Clean Break, A, 26, 66, 133
Clemens, Steven C., 170n
Clinton, Bill, 21, 23, 25, 26, 90,
123, 128, 171n
Coalition for Democracy in Iran,
48
Coalition Provisional Authority, 31
Cohen, Ariel, 118, 120
Cold War, 17, 26, 96, 97, 114
Cole, Juan, 76, 157n
Communist infl uence, 11, 40, 108,
123
Cook 03 index 191 21/11/07 06:25:02
192 INDEX
Conference of Presidents of Major
American Jewish
Organizations, 23
Congress (US), 23, 53, 96, 98
ConocoPhillips, 153n
Council on Foreign Relations, 31,
144
Cronin, Patrick, 184n
Cuba, xii, 87–8, 150n
Curtis, Mark, 16–17
Czech Republic, 160n
D’Alema, Massimo, 130
Dagan, Meir, 169n
Dahlan, Mohammed, 83, 130
Damascus, see Syria
Dan, Uri, 181n
‘Danish cartoons affair’, 78
Dayan, Moshe, 101, 102, 149,
174n, 175n
Dayan, Uzi, 103–4, 106
De Soto, Alvaro, 129–30
Defense Policy Board, 25
democracy promotion, claims of,
3–4, 8, 9, 85, 122, 123, 124,
126, 131–2, 133, 136, 139,
141, 142, 179n, 181n
Department of Homeland Security,
125, 180n
Dimona, 94
Disengagement Plan, see Gaza
‘Domino theory’, 10–11
Downing Street memos, 33, 135
Drumheller, Tyler, 135
Druze, 114, 117, 147
East Jerusalem, 131, 139
East Timor, 182n
Eban, Abba, 110
Economist, 38–9, 48, 158n
Edwards, John, 37, 162–3n
Egeland, Jan, 165n
Egypt,
and Arab nationalism, 21, 100
and Iran, 38
and Israel, 45, 106, 107, 109,
111, 114, 178n
and the Muslim Brotherhood,
127
and the Palestinians, 181n
and the Six-Day War (1967), 96,
175n
and the Suez War (1956), 94,
110
and the US, 99, 145, 175n
Eisen, Livia, 180n
Eisenhower Doctrine, 17
Eisenhower, Dwight, 111
Eisenkott, Gadi, 57, 164n
Eitan, Rafael, 102
El Al, 180n
el-Baradei, Muhammad, 46
Eldar, Akiva, 130–1
Energy Task Force, 30
England, Gordon, 37
Esfahani, Alireza Zaker, 171n
Eshkol, Levy, 105, 174n
Esso, see ExxonMobil
Ethiopia, 111
Europe,
and the Holocaust, 78
and Iran, 41, 44, 48, 51, 52, 76,
124
colonial role, 108, 110, 113,
126, 138, 140, 148
protests over Iraq, 34
European Union, 70
Evron, Boaz, 114
ExxonMobil, 153n
Facility 1391 (prison), 54
Fahd, king of Saudi Arabia, 15
Faisal, king of Iraq, 11, 14
Faisal al-Saud, king of Saudi
Arabia, 15
Farsi, 76–7
Fatah, 83, 128, 129–30, 181n
Fatah al-Islam, 82, 141, 171n
Feith, Douglas, 24, 26, 29, 47, 51,
133, 157n
Cook 03 index 192 21/11/07 06:25:02
INDEX 193
Financial Times, 85
Fisk, Robert, 58–9, 73, 138–9,
183n
Foreign Affairs, 106, 134
Foreign Suitors for Iraqi Oilfi eld
Contracts, 30–1
Fort Leavenworth, 139
Forward, 47, 68
France
and Iraq, 20
and Lebanon
and the Suez War (1956), 94,
110
Atomic Agency, 97
colonial role, 9, 14, 108, 126
support for Israel, 94
Franklin, Larry, 47
Free Patriotic Movement, 163n
Friedman, Thomas, 21
Frum, David, 179n
Fulbright, J. William, 96
G8 summit, 66
Gaddafi , Colonel Muammar, 35, 43
Galilee, 68
Gallup poll, 8
Gates, Robert, 9, 13, 79, 170n,
184n
Gaza, see also Palestinians
and Sharon, 33
as a laboratory, 125–31
civil war, 83, 129–31
comparison with Iraq, 8, 91
disengagement, 24, 36, 50, 98,
128
land swaps, 114, 178n
Gazit, Shlomo, 103, 105–6, 177n
Gemayel, Bashir, 100
Georgia, 124
Germany, 76
Ghilan, Maxim, 122
Gibraltar, 80
Gingrich, Newt, 26
Gissin, Rana’an, 33
Glick, Caroline, 119–20, 148–9
Golan Heights, 54, 69, 101
Gold, Dore, 37, 40
Gordan, Michael, 157n
Grenada, xii
Green Zone, x, 5, see also Iraq
Guardian, 46–7, 72, 130, 132, 146,
184n
Guatemala, xii
Gulf War (1991), 2, 13, 16, 19,
21–2, 40, 43, 90, 105, 113
Ha’aretz, 34, 43, 55, 58, 65, 75,
159n, 161n, 174n
Haditha, 6
Hadley, Stephen, 47
Hagel, Chuck, 33
Haifa, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60
Halabja, 1
Halevy, Ephraim, 35, 74, 103–4,
106
Halliday, Denis, 22–3
Halutz, Dan, 55, 63, 64, 65
Hamas, 127, see also Palestinians
and Iran, 41, 74
and Saudi Arabia, 118, 119, 146
and unity government, 83
and the US, 85
civil war, 129–30
Islamic radicalism, xv
Israel’s view of, 44, 56, 147
Hamilton, Lee, 71
Hariri, Rafi k, 83, 140
Harkabi, Yehoshafat, 102
Hawaii, xii
Hejaz, 123
Heritage Foundation, 118
Hersh, Seymour, 23, 51–2, 53,
60–1, 65, 112, 143, 144
Herzl, Theodor, 36
Herzliya conference (2001), 103–4,
106
Herzliya conference (2003), 36
Herzliya conference (2007), 36–8,
40, 73–4, 75
Hickenlooper, Bourke, 95–6
Cook 03 index 193 21/11/07 06:25:02
194 INDEX
Hiro, Dilip, 39, 48
Hirst, David, 45
Hizbullah, xvii, see also Lebanon
and covert US operations, 82,
140–1, 142
and Iran/Syria axis, 41, 44, 51,
53, 67, 68, 74, 118, 162–3n,
165n
and the neocons, 26
and rocket attacks, 49, 53, 55,
56, 57–9, 60, 66
and sectarian tensions, 82, 140–1
and Shebaa Farms, 70
and the ‘war on terror’, 37, 104,
145, 147
Israeli army (2000), ousting of,
43, 54, 140
Israeli attack on (2006), 53–65,
74, 93, 117, 164n, 165n
popularity of, xv, 140
prisoners dispute with Israel,
54–5, 57, 163n
spy drones, use of, 58
US army (1983), ousting of, 17
Holocaust Cartoon Contest, 169n
Holocaust Conference, 77–8
Honduras, xii
Hudson Institute, 24
Human Rights Watch, 165n
Huntington, Samuel, 10, 106, 108
Hussein, king of Jordan, 98
Hussein, Saddam, see Saddam
Hussein
Ibn Saud, 123
IDF (Israel Defence Forces), 35, 62,
65, 149
India, 30, 98, 111, 124
Indonesia, 182n
Institute for Advanced Strategic
and Political Studies, 25
Institute for Strategic Affairs, 74,
101
insurgency, see Iraq
International Atomic Energy
Agency, 38, 46–7, 49–50, 75
International Crisis Group, 2
International Institute for Strategic
Studies, 184n
International Journal of Middle
East Studies, 77
International Monetary Fund
(IMF), 13
Iran,
and Hizbullah, 41, 43, 44, 59,
140, 165n
and Iraq, 7, 44, 71–2, 73, 86,
134, 144, 157n, 158n
and oil, 121–2, 122, 154n
and Saudi Arabia, 144–5
and the Shia alliance, 28, 37, 67,
120–1, 124, 132, 135
and Syria, 41, 42, 44, 56–7, 66,
104
and the Taliban, 72, 158n
and the UN, 38, 50, 73
Hamas, support for, 41
Iran-Iraq War (1980–88), 1, 19,
20, 41, 48
Islamic Revolution of 1979, 14,
17, 18, 19, 135
Israel, supposed threat to, 38,
40, 41, 45, 49, 53, 56, 57,
74–8, 120
Jewish citizens of, 51–2, 162n
nuclear programme, 14, 38–52,
74–5, 155n
Persian nationalism, 18, 136
resistance, exemplar of, 43
sectarian tensions in, 84, 109
the Shah, overthrow of (1953),
xii, 14–15, 87, 112
the Shah, US support for, 17–18
US campaign against, 41, 46, 47,
48–52, 59–61, 73, 84, 88–9,
93, 100, 142–3, 170n, 184–5n
Iran-Contra scandal, 24, 130
Iraq, pre-US invasion:
and al-Qaeda, 29–30, 72, 158n
Cook 03 index 194 21/11/07 06:25:03
INDEX 195
and colonial rule, 108
and the Gulf War (1991), 19,
21–2, 90
and no-fl y zones, 22, 41
and oil, 11–14, 118–19, 120,
138, 154n, 158n
Iran-Iraq War (1980–88), 1, 19,
20, 41, 48
Israeli promotion of US attack,
32–5, 44, 159n
sectarian tensions, 1
UN inspections, 1–3
UN sanctions, 2, 3, 22–3, 30, 41,
158n
welfare system, 22
Iraq, the US invasion and after:
and al-Qaeda, 146–7
and ‘democracy promotion’,
131–2
and elections, 85
and the Shia alliance, 120–1,
124, 135
body counts, 4–6
civil war, x–xi, 6–7, 81, 121,
135, 136–9
ethnic cleansing, 5–6, 138, see
also partition
the Green Zone, x, 5
humanitarian catastrophe, 4–6
the insurgency, xvii, 5, 6–8,
71–2, 81–2, 121, 137, 146–7,
150n
the Kurds, 8–9
massacres by US army, 6
opinion polls, 8, 85
partition, x–xi, xiii, 32, 82, 125,
137–9, 147–8, 182–3n
regime change, xi–xii, xiv, 21–2,
26–7, 29–32, 122, 136, 179n
Saudi interference, 145–6
WMD, xvii, 1–3, 29, 45, 135
Iraq Body Count, 4–5, 151n
Iraq Study Group, 7, 71, 72, 119,
137
Iraqi Petroleum Company, 11, 14
Irbil, 84
Iron Dome, 68
Islamic Jihad, 54, 142
Israel, grand strategy:
9/11, exploitation of, 103–4
‘clash of civilisations’, promotion
of, xv, 35, 42, 51–2, 80,
103–4, 106, 111, 179n
Hitler/Nazi comparison, abuse
of, 34, 35, 73–8
reordering of Middle East,
xiii–xv, 28, 32, 89–90, 91–3,
101–2, 107–10, 119–20, 122,
125, 133, 147–9, 173n
Israel, relations with the US:
arms deals, 97, 98
early relations, 95–101, 174n,
175n
Israel lobby, 47–8, 89–90, 95–6,
97–8, 172n, 173n
military aid, 97, 98, 155n, 174n
the neocons, infl uence on, 27–8,
32, 91–4, 118–20
Israel, domestic policy:
Arab mind, ‘science’ of, 93–4,
173n
Arab nationalism, fear of,
xiii–xiv, 100
Herzliya conferences, 36–8, 40,
73–5, 103–4
human shields, use of civilians
as, 58, 165n
military censor, 58, 174n
military intelligence, advice of,
34, 40, 42, 62–3, 103, 168n
missile defence systems, 49, 68,
167n
opinion polls, 34, 75, 169n
rule by army, 62–4, 102–5
Israel, relations with the
Palestinians:
occupied territories, plan to
annex, 21
Palestinian nationalism,
destruction of, 126–31, 181n
Cook 03 index 195 21/11/07 06:25:03
196 INDEX
Israel, foreign policy:
arms sales, 99–100, 125–6, 176n
early patron in France and
Britain, 94
Golan Heights, 54, 69, 101
Kurds in Iraq, 111–12, 138
non-Arab pact (1958), 111–12
nuclear monopoly, 39, 45, 74,
94–5, 97, 101, 102, 109,
117–18, 155n, 160n, 174n,
179n
OPEC, plan to undermine, xiv,
92, 118–20, 122
Shah of Iran, support for, 112,
178n
Israel, past relations with region:
Six-Day War (1967), 95–7, 99,
105
Lebanon, invasions of, 99, 100,
107, 140
Lebanon, withdrawal from
(2000), 43, 54, 140
Israel, current relations in region:
Egypt, 45, 106, 107, 109, 111,
114, 178n
Iran, campaign against, 40–5,
50–1, 53, 73–8, 162n
Iran, possible fi rst strike against,
45, 49, 79–80, 170n, 184–5n
Iran, spies in, 51, 111–12
Iraq, partition of, 137, 139
Iraq, promotion of attack, 32–5,
44, 159n
Jordan, 45, 98, 176n
Lebanon, overfl ights of, 54
Lebanon War (2006), xiv, xv, 28,
53–65, 93, 117, 141, 143,
164n, 180n
Lebanon War, attempt to widen
to Syria and Iran, 56–7
Lebanon War, dry-run for attack
on Iran, 60
Lebanon War, use of cluster
bombs, 56, 148
Syria, threatened attack on,
65–70, 167n
Saudi peace plan, opposition to,
84–5, 104
Israeli, Raphael, 173n
Italy, 130
Japan, 9
Jedda, 146
Jerusalem, 68, 77, 104
Jerusalem Post, 62, 66, 119, 148
Jewish Institute for National
Security Affairs, 23, 33
jihadis, 28, see also al-Qaeda
Johns Hopkins University, 5
Johnson, Lyndon, 96, 99
Joint Chiefs of Staff, 10
Jordan,
and Iraq, 19
and Israel, 45, 98, 176n
and the neocon vision, 123
and the oil industry, 12
and the Palestinians, 114–15,
125, 127
and sectarian tension, 108
and US support, 100, 111, 145
Ben Gurion’s plan for, 110
Jordan River, 115
Jordan Valley, 131
Journal of Palestine Studies, 107
Kadima party, 75
Kalman, Matthew, 61
Kamel, Hussein, 2
Karzai, Hamid, 156n
Kaspi, Yo’av, 41
Katyusha rockets, 53, 59
Katz, Ya’acov, 80
Kennan, George, 10
Khalilzad, Zalmay, 145–6
Khameini, Ayatollah Ali, 76, 169n
Kharg island, 79
Khatami, Mohammed, 84
Khomeini, Ayatollah, 38, 77, 112
Khiyami, Sami, 173n
Cook 03 index 196 21/11/07 06:25:03
INDEX 197
Khuzestan, 73
Kimmerling, Baruch, 127
Kinzer, Stephen, xi–xii
Kiryat Shmona, 55
Kissinger, Henry, 23–4, 31, 87, 98,
155n
Klein, Naomi, 125
Knesset, 105, 119, 133
Koran, 150n
Kristof, Nicholas, 172n
Kucinich, Dennis, 14, 153n
Kuntar, Samir, 55
Kurds, 150n
and the Gulf War (1991), 21
and partition of Iraq, 8–9, 135,
137–8, 147
gassing in Iraq, 1–2
in Iran, 84, 143
in reordered Middle East, 114,
117, 125
in Syria, 148–9
links to Israel, 111–12, 138, 149
Kuwait,
and the oil industry, 11, 154n
invasion of (1990), 2, 13, 19–20,
41, 113
power of, 122
sectarian pressures on, 109
Labor party, 34, 75, 128
Lake, Anthony, 19
Lancet, 5
Le Monde diplomatique, 132
Lebanon,
civil war (1975–90), 140
colonial rule, 108
Israeli invasion (1978), 99, 140
Israeli invasion (1982), 100, 107,
140
Israeli overfl ights, 54
Israeli plan for a Christian state,
101, 140
Israeli war on (2006), 28, 53–65,
82, 93, 117, 141, 148, 164n,
180n
Israeli withdrawal from (2000),
43, 54
sectarian tension in, 82, 140–2
Shebaa Farms row, 54, 69–70,
163n
Syrian infl uence, 100–1, 140–1
threat of partition, 147–8
Ledeen, Michael, 47–8, 92, 118,
172n
Leshem, Daniel, 41, 136
Leverett, Flynt, 88, 143
Levy, Gideon, 85
Lewis, Bernard, 37, 177n
Libby, Lewis “Scooter”, 27, 156n,
157n
Liberty (US ship), 99, 175n
Libya, 19, 35, 43, 44, 100
Lieven, Anatol, 24–5, 80–1, 122–4
Likud party, 33, 75
Litani River, 100, 110
Livini, Tzipi, 130
London Review of Books, 89
Lord Goldsmith, 151n
Lott, Trent, 26
Lukoil, 31
Ma’ariv, 101, 162n
Malka, General Amos, 62–3, 104
Maronites, 100, 108, 114
Mearsheimer, John, 89–90, 98,
121, 159n, 172n
Mecca, 16, 123, 129
Media Lens, 151n
Medina, 16
Meir, Gideon, 56
Mendel, Yonatan, 37–8, 40
MI5, 73
MI6, 112, 135
Middle East Forum, 157n
Middle East Studies Association,
177n
Miller, Judith, 157n
Mofaz, Shaul, 57, 102, 128
Mohammadi, Manouchehr, 78
Cook 03 index 197 21/11/07 06:25:03
198 INDEX
Mohammed (Prophet), 78, 108,
150n
Morocco, 82
Morris, Roger, 11
Moscow, 124
Mossad, 54, 56, 74, 80, 107,
111–12, 141–2, 180n
Mossadeq, Mohammed, 14, 112
Mosul, 110
Mount Miron, 59
Mujahedeen e-Khalq, 143
Muslim Brotherhood, 127, 145
Nabulsi, Karma, 8
Nafaa, Hassan, 107, 114, 177n
Nahariya, 55
Nahr al-Bared, 82
Narouzi, Arash, 77
Nasr, Vali, 145
Nasrallah, Hassan, 35, 55, 57, 141,
147–8, 163n, 164–5n,
182–3n, see also Hizbullah
Nasser, Gamal Abdel, 21, 94, 100,
110, 174n
Natanz, 46, 51, 80, 170n
National Intelligence Council,
134
National Intelligence Estimate, 49
National Security Council, 24, 30,
47, 60, 69, 142
NATO, 50, 123, 158n
Nazareth, 58
Nazis, 35, 40, 76–7
Negev, 178n
neocons,
and Iran, 27, 47–8, 67, 71–2, 84,
133
and Iraq, 23, 26–7, 28–32, 118,
122, 132, 133, 136, 137
and Israel, 23, 25–6, 91–4,
118–19, 125, 155n
and the Israel lobby, 47–8,
89–90, 121–2
and the Lebanon War (2006),
60, 93
and Saudi Arabia, 43, 118–19,
122–3
and Syria, 66–7, 133
‘clash of civilisations’, promotion
of, 26, 40, 80, 119–20, 122
infl uence, apparent waning of,
71, 72, 147
oil industry, fi ght with, 31–2,
118–21, 122
philosophy of power, 24–7, 92,
172n, 181–2n
strategy for Middle East, xi, xiv,
26–7, 66, 91–3, 118–24, 133,
147–8, 173n
Netanyahu, Binyamin, 25–6, 75–6
Neumann, Thomas, 33
New York, 16
New York Times, 21, 146, 157n
New Yorker, 51
Newsweek, 2
Nicaragua, xii, 24, 130
Niger, 156n, 157n
Nixon Doctrine, 17–18, 98
Nixon, Richard, 15, 17, 23, 98
North Korea, 27, 28, 39, 44, 75
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty,
25, 38, 41, 46, 155n, 160n
O’Neill, Paul, 30
Occupied Territories, see
Palestinians, Gaza and West
Bank
Offi ce of Special Plans, 29
Olmert, Ehud,
and the Arab peace plan, 85
and Iran, 37, 53, 73–4, 75, 80,
100
and the Lebanon War (2006),
61–5
and nuclear weapons, 155n
and the Palestinians, 98, 131
Oman, 11, 109
OPEC,
and the Gulf War (1991), 20
and US support, 100
establishment of, 15, 153–4n
Cook 03 index 198 21/11/07 06:25:03
INDEX 199
Iran, threat from, 120–1, 144
neocon plan for, xiv, 43, 92,
118–19, 120–1
oil industry plan for, 32, 120–1
Open Secrets, xviii, 102, 177n
Operation Desert Storm, 21, 41
Operation Magic Carpet, 180n
Oren, Amir, 104, 176n
Osiraq nuclear reactor, 49
Oslo peace process, 25, 128, 129
Ottomanisation, xiii, 109–10,
113–14
Overthrow, xi–xii
Oxford Research Group, 46
Pace, General Peter, 72
Pakistan, 17, 84, 102, 109
Palast, Greg, 30–1, 118, 120
Palestinians,
and elections, 85
and ghettoisation, 128–9, 139
and the Gulf War (1991), 113
and intifadas, 128, 129
and the Iran-Iraq War, 112–13
and the Muslim Brotherhood,
127
and the peace process, 45, 128,
129
and sanctions, 83
and Saudi Arabia, 119, 146
and Sharon’s plans, 105
and unity government, 129–30
Arab world, dependence on, 32,
43, 112–13, 118, 122
civil war, threat of, 83, 129–31
ethnic cleansing of, xiii, xiv, 35,
112–13, 114–15, 125
Gaza disengagement, 24, 36, 50,
98, 128
in Jordan, 98, 108
in Lebanon, 82, 100, 112, 140
Iran, links to, 74, 78
Israeli demographic fears, 36
Israeli ‘divide and rule’, 126–31,
139, 181n
occupied territories as
laboratory, xv, 125–6, 141,
180n
occupied territories as template
for Iraq, xv, 8, 91, 125
Panama, xii
Patai, Raphael, 93–4
Patriot missiles, 68
Pelosi, Nancy, 69
Pentagon, 16
and Iran, 50–2, 72, 79, 142–3
and Iraq, 29, 137, 158n
control by neocons, 31
Peres, Shimon, 34, 42, 75, 95, 106,
128, 131, 174n
Peretz, Amir, 63
Peri, Yoram, 113
Perle, Richard, 24, 25–6, 30, 133,
155n
Perrin, Francis, 97
Petraeus, General David, 139
Pilger, John, 23
Pillar, Paul, 134
Pines Paz, Ophir, 67
Pipes, Daniel, 71, 136–7, 141
Plame, Valerie, 156n
PLO, 127
Poland, 160n
Pollack, Kenneth, 10, 20
Powell, Colin, xiii
‘pre-emptive’ war, xvi, xvii, 3, 25,
27, 28, 39, 43, 65, 68, 104,
105, 148, 151n, 160n
preventive war, see pre-emptive war
Price, Matthew, 165n
Project for the New American
Century, 23, 27
Puerto Rica, xii
Putin, Vladimir, 123–4
Qassem, Sheikh Naim, 59, 141, 143
Qatar, 11
Rabin, Yitzhak, 42, 102, 106, 128,
179n
Cook 03 index 199 21/11/07 06:25:03
200 INDEX
Rafael Armaments Development
Authority, 74
Rafeh, Mahmoud, 142
Ramallah, 128
Rapid Deployment Force, see
Centcom
Ravid, Yitzhak, 74
Reagan, Ronald, 25, 31, 98, 130
Rebuilding America’s Defenses, 27
Regev, Mark, 165n
Revolutionary Guard, 72, 73
Rice, Condoleezza, 47, 57, 60, 66,
79, 88–9, 139, 170n, 184n
Ritter, Scott, 3, 50
Riyadh, 144–5
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 15
Rosen, Steve, 47
Ross, Carne, 135
Rove, Karl, 47
Royal Dutch Shell, 31, 153n
Royal Institute of International
Affairs, 16
Rubin, Uzi, 74
Rubinstein, Danny, 171n
Rumsfeld, Donald, 25, 26, 29, 31,
90
Rusk, Dean, 96
Russia, see also Soviet Union
and the Gulf War (1991), 20
and Iran, 49, 50, 52, 124
and Iraq, 30
and Lebanon, 142
and Syria, 68
and the US, 39, 123–4, 154n,
160n
Saban Center, 138
Sadat, Anwar, 107
Saddam Hussein see also Iraq
and the Palestinians, 32, 43, 113
and WMD, 1–2, 33, 34, 50, 135
comparison with Hitler, 21, 34
containment of, 20–2, 23, 26, 87
crushing of dissent, 21
debts from Gulf War, 13, 14
hero of Arab world, 21
Kuwait, invasion of, 19–20
US backing for, 11, 19
Saguy, General Uri, 42
Salafi s, 145
Salloukh, Fawzi, 142
San Francisco, 30
San Francisco Chronicle, 61
Satterfi eld, David, 47
Saud, House of, 15–16, 18
Saudi Arabia,
9/11, connection to, 16, 154n
and arms sales, 18–19, 98, 99,
119
and Iraq, 144–6
and the neocon plan, 122–3, 148
and US bases, 16, 18, 20
as US asset, 17–18, 132, 145
control of OPEC, 15, 20, 21, 32,
43, 92, 118–19, 120, 124, 144
Israel and US, threat to, 32, 122
possible nuclear ambitions, 38
regional peace plan, 84–5, 104
Sunni-Shia split, provocation of,
81, 82, 109, 144–6, 171n
US elites, links to,15–16
US, rift with, 85, 144–6
SAVAK, 112
Schiff, Ze’ev, 59, 63, 105, 125
Seale, Patrick, 9
Second World War, 9, 17, 80, 92,
96, 103, 154n
Security Council (UN), 50, 52
Segev, Tom, 95, 174n
Senate Foreign Relations
Committee, 7, 95, 175n
Senate Intelligence Committee, 134
Serbia, 124
Shah of Iran, 14, 17–18, 77, 87,
100, 112–13
Shahak, Israel, xviii, 102, 107,
160n, 173–4n, 176n, 177n,
178n, 179n
Shahak-Lipkin, General Amnon,
160n
Shapir, Yiftah, 74
Cook 03 index 200 21/11/07 06:25:03
INDEX 201
Sharon, Ariel
and Iran, 42–5, 49, 178n
and Iraq, 32–5, 137, 159n
and Lebanon, 64, 65, 100, 107
and Ottomanisation, 114
and the Palestinians, 36, 85, 125,
127, 128, 130–1, 181n
and the power of generals, 63,
102, 105
doctrine of empire, 101–2, 106,
117
in coma, 61
Sharrett, Moshe, 176n
Shawcross, William, 2
Shebaa Farms, 54, 69, 163n
Shell, see Royal Dutch Shell
Shia,
and blowback, 17
and the Iran-Iraq War, 19
and the neocons, 40, 119
and Oded Yinon, 109–10
and oil, 120–1
‘arc of extremism’, 28, 37, 67,
69, 81
colonial policy, 108
history of, 150n
in Iraq, 1, 6, 8, 21, 125
in Lebanon, 26, 82, 140
in Syria, 44
Iran’s Shia alliance, 43, 67, 68,
69, 124, 135
Iranian interference in
Afghanistan, 72
Iranian interference in Iraq,
71–2
war with Sunnis, US promotion
of, 80, 81, 136–7, 143–7
Shlaim, Avi, 110, 131
Sidon, 54, 142
Simon, Bob, 157n
Sinai, 94, 107, 110, 114, 174n, 178n
Singh, Anupama Rao, 22
Siniora, Fuad, 60, 82, 140
Sistani, Grand Ayatollah Ali, 85
Six-Day War (1967), 24, 95–7, 99,
105, 108, 127, 174n
Skyguard, 68
Snow, Tony, 9
Sofer, Arnon, 173n
Soros, George, 172n
South Africa, 130
South Korea, 9, 124
South Lebanon Army, 141, 142
Soviet Union, see also Russia
Afghanistan, invasion of, 17, 18,
28
and Iran, 14
and the Suez War (1956), 94
Cold War threat, 25, 96, 97
empire, collapse of 24, 105–6,
114, 116, 118, 123, 149, 173n
infl uence in Middle East, 10,
17–18, 98, 101, 106, 116
State Department (US), xiii, xiv, 8,
30, 31, 88, 95, 118, 146,
157n, 171n
Stauffer, Thomas, 175n
Steele, Jonathan, 130, 132
Strategic Future for Israel, 49
Strategic Research Centre (Iran),
171n
Sudan, 19, 111
Suez War, 94, 110, 173n, 174n
Suharto, General, 182n
Sunday Times, 49
Sunnis,
and blowback, 17
and the Iran-Iraq War, 19
and the neocons, 40, 119, 122
and Oded Yinon, 109–10
colonial policy, 108
history of, 150n
in Iraq, 1, 6, 7, 8, 125, 136
in Lebanon, 82, 140, 141
in Syria, 44
Iranian interference in
Afghanistan, 72
Iranian interference in Iraq,
71–2
Ottomanisation, 114
rise of jihadis, 116
Cook 03 index 201 21/11/07 06:25:04
202 INDEX
Sunnis, continued
US funding of jihadis, 28
war with the Shia, US promotion
of, 80, 81, 136–7, 143–7
Symington, Stuart, 96, 175n
Syria,
and colonialism, 108
and the Golan, 54, 69, 101
and Iraq, 72, 83
and the neocons, 26, 37, 40
and Shebaa Farms row, 54
and Six-Day War (1967), 96
and the US, 84, 171n
Egypt, union with, 100
Iran, alleged ties with, 41, 42,
44, 56–7, 65, 66, 104
Israel, threat to, 43, 44
Israeli attack, threat of, 65–70,
148–9, 167n
Lebanon, infl uence in, 100–1,
140–1, 167n
partition, threat of, 109, 147,
148–9
Syria Accountability Act, 83
Taliban, xvii, 17, 72, 84, 117, 118
Tariki, Sheikh Abdullah, 154n
Tehran, see Iran
Tel Aviv, 60, see also Israel
Tenet, George, 29–30
Tibet, 123
Time magazine, 22
The Times (London), 44, 137
Timur, Zvi, 102
Toensing, Chris, 139
Total Elf Aquitaine, 31
Truman Doctrine, 17
Truman, Harry, 33, 95, 154n
Turkey, 18, 21, 38, 102, 109, 111,
113, 114
Ukraine, 124
Unicef, 22
United Arab Emirates, 11, 19
United Jewish Appeal, 96
United Kingdom, see Britain
United Nations, 79
and Iran, 38, 50, 52, 73
and Lebanon, 54, 83, 140, 141,
142, 163n, 165n, 166n
and the Palestinians, 128–9
inspections in Iraq, 1–2
Oil for Food program, 22
Resolution 1701, 56
United States, foreign policy:
9/11, exploitation of, 28–9,
154n, 157n
and oil, xi, xii, xiv, 9–10, 27,
30–2, 73, 86, 119, 122, 124,
179n
and oil industry, xiv, 30–2, 87–8,
119–21
anti-ballistic missiles in Europe,
39
‘blowback’, xii, 17, 28
civil war, promotion of, 81–5,
140–3, 146, 147, 184n
democracy promotion, claims of,
3–4, 85, 126, 131–3, 136,
139–40, 142, 181n
divide and rule, 100, 137, 147–8
military expansionism, 92–3,
124
nuclear states, fear of, 27
permanent war, 92
‘pre-emptive’ war, doctrine of,
xvi, xvii, 3, 25, 27, 28, 43, 65
proxies, development of, 17–18
Sunni-Shia split, accentuation of,
28, 80, 81–2, 141, 143–8
‘war on terror’, exploitation of,
xv, 137, 156n
United States, Israel:
arms race, fuelling of, 97,
99–100, 119, 161n, 176n
lobby, effect of, 47–8, 89–90,
95–6, 97–8, 161n
Arab mind, ‘science’ of, 93–4
special relationship, 111
Suez War (1956), 94
Cook 03 index 202 21/11/07 06:25:04
INDEX 203
Yom Kippur War (1973), 97, 98
Zionism, identifi cation with, 95
United States, Iraq:
al-Qaeda, links to, 29, 146, 147
containment policy, 20–2, 23,
87
the insurgency, 81–2, 146, 184n
intelligence before invasion,
134–5
mercenaries, use of, 4, 6, 151n
the Oil Law, 12–14, 138, 153n
partition, 137–8
permanent bases, 8, 9, 71, 121,
152n
regime change, xi–xii, xiv, 21–2,
26–7, 29–32, 122, 136, 179n
State Department view, xiii, xiv,
12, 30–2, 118
the ‘surge’, 9, 72–3
White House split, 71–2
United States, Iran:
campaign against, 41, 46, 47,
48–52, 88–9, 100, 142–3
moves in UN, 50, 73
nuclear strike against, option of,
51–2
undercover activities, 51, 84,
142–3
military attack preparations,
50–2, 59–61, 73, 93, 170n,
184–5n
Israeli unilateral action, hints of,
49, 79
United States, other Middle East
states:
Afghanistan, xii, xvii, 17, 72,
109, 117, 156n, 158n
Lebanon, 82, 140–2, 183n
the Palestinians, 83, 98, 129–30,
146, 181n
Russia, 123–4
Saudi Arabia, 85, 98, 132,
144–6, 154n
Syria, 69–70, 83, 86, 142
University of Maryland, 8
Van Creveld, Martin, 39, 68–70
Venezuela, 10
Vietnam War, xii–xiii, 9, 17, 97,
175n
Vilayat e-Faqih, 40
Village Leagues, 127
Von Sponeck, Hans, 23
Wahhabism, 40, 123
Wall Street Journal, 179n
Walnut Creek, 30
Walt, Stephen, see Mearsheimer,
John
‘war on terror’, xv, 9, 28–9, 35, 45,
80, 106, 131, 137, 140, 141,
143, 144, 149, 156n, 157n
Warba island, 20
Warde, Ibrahim, 132
Washington, see United States
Washington Institute for Near East
Policies, 52
Washington Post, 24, 50, 88, 157n
Weisglass, Dov, 45
Weissman, Keith, 47
Welch, David, 129
West Bank, see also Palestinians
and land swaps, 178n
and the neocons, 24
and separation principles, 139
and Sharon, 85
and the Six-Day War (1967), 105
civil war, 83, 125–31
comparison with Iraq, 8, 91
ethnic cleansing of, 114–5
Western media, 4–5, 57, 123
White House, see United States
Wilson, Joseph, 156n
Winograd Committee, 61–4, 67,
104
WMD (weapons of mass
destruction), 1–3, 29, 34, 50,
133, 135, see also Iraq
Wolfensohn, John, 24
Wolfowitz, Paul, 26, 27, 29, 31,
87, 155n, 157n, 181n
Cook 03 index 203 21/11/07 06:25:04
204 INDEX
Woodward, Bob, 29
Woolsey, James, 37, 40, 90, 160n
World Bank, 24, 131
World Court, 76
World Food Programme, 23
World Trade Center, 16, 26, 29
World War Two, see Second World
War
World Zionist Organisation, 107
Wurmser, David, 26, 60, 66, 133
Wurmser, Meyrav, 24, 66, 69
Ya’alon, Moshe, 37, 102, 128
Yadlin, Amos, 168n
Yassin, Sheikh Ahmed, 127
Yed’iot Aharonot, 66, 103, 105
Yemen, 20, 82, 109, 180n
Yinon, Oded, 107–10, 114–15,
116, 117, 124, 148, 149
Yom Kippur War (1973), 15, 97,
98
Young, Michael, 147
Ze’evi, Rehavam, 102
Zinni, Anthony, 47
Zionism
and fear of Arabs, 76
and the neocons, 26
and reordering of Middle East,
32, 91, 110–11, 112, 149,
177n
and the US, 95
Zunes, Stephen, 20, 99, 171n,
173n, 176n

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